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Competition Events

Home Up Docking Landings Competition Events Large Formations Camera Benefits of CRW


4 Way Rotations
4 Way Sequential
8 Way Speed
2 Way Sequential


    This section is focused on techniques relating to the four main CRW competition disciplines:

  • 4 Way Rotations
  • 4 Way Sequential
  • 8 Way Speed
  • 2 Way Sequential (introduced at world level in 2005 World Cup).

    I have decided to split up all the information relating to the four competitive disciplines of CRW into two areas. These are:

  • "What To Do" = RESULT/GOAL/OBJECTIVE. The focus is on where you are getting to, what the competition rules and regulations are (i.e the starting and finishing points).
  • "How To Do" = TECHNIQUE/STEPS/JOURNEY. This is where you can learn details about the steps, techniques, strategies, and skills required to achieve the objective (i.e. steps from starting to finishing points). The page you are looking at right now is the introduction to the "How To Do" section.

    If you want to know what happened in the past, go to the history page. If you want to know the complete regulations regarding participation in CRW (including safety, training, & competition), go to the regulations section. If you want to download documents, files, and media not related to rules & regulations, go to the resources page.


Following are notes & other ideas relevant to this section that require further development. Please ignore.

  • Competition Techniques 
  • visualisation 
  • Psychology 
  • Training Regime 
  • Team Goals <> Personnel 
  • Compatability
  • Team Psychology
  • early training & buildup of skill & speed

Fio Book of Zen for 4 Way Rotations

  • Squat on top.
  • Toggle tension.
  • Drag.
  • It stops with me. i.e if people are docking with momentum before you, you MUST dock straight and without momentum. Do not add to the momentum.
  • Favour outside.
  • Centre line.
  • Smooth dock.
  • Legs up.
  • Right hand reach.
  • Fast feet.
  • Loud echo.
  • Straight legs.
  • Early toggles.
  • Anticipate leave.

Fio Rotations Outline


  • Equal wing loading on initial set-up and a daily basis.
  • Test equipment compatability at the start of each training camp and adjust immediately.
  • Balanced brake settings.
  • Riser grips dialled in.
  • Pilot chute with heaps of drag (not clapped out).
  • Gloves.
  • Sleeves (arms).
  • Shoes without tongue.
  • Long pants.
  • Hook knife or two.
  • Altimeter.
  • Whistle.
  • Tertiary.
  • Weights.


  • Squat on top (sit on canopy with feet ready to leave).
  • Maintain positive toggle input/tension (control).
  • Pick heading and hold it.
  • when going to pilot, make sure you don't head towards the rotator. This both when going up (give the rotator space to leave), AND regarding heading (give rotator room down the stack without crowding him). Note that the Russian deliberately change heading to the right a little (they rotate to the left) to give the rotator room and to cut down on the distance that he has to travel.


  • Feel the leave.
  • Kick feet out.
  • Right toggle hard and fast.
  • Left toggle hard and fast.
  • Left riser hard and fast.
  • Right riser hard and fast.
  • Body kick.
  • Shortest / smoothest line.
  • To raise the centre of gravity and to minimise the affect the body has on the formation, raise the legs during the rotation and the dock.
  • if body and canopy slide away, don't toggle as deeply, but still do it at the same speed.
  • if you are too flat on the rotation, you probably didn't give enough depth in your toggle deflection.
  • Fast and deep toggle deflections. Not slow and definitely not alternate inputs (one day - let up - the other down - let up -> this leads to pendulum which is no good).
  • too slow off the top, need to toggle hard and fast and get onto the risers as quickly as possible.
  • smooth movement on the top gives the wing better performance - we don't necessarily wan this????? We want to stay close, bring on but not induce a stall - therefore sink quicker and get to the bottom quicker.
  • push toggles forward when inputting the toggle leave as it is a shorter distance to the risers.


  • To raise the centre of gravity and to minimise the affect the body has on the formation, raise the legs during the rotation and the dock.
  • Line dock - straight in (slider and then canopy). Do not dock from below.
  • Whistle on or near first legal grip.
  • Square up.
  • Feet up (momentum / pendulum).
  • Stow toggles (not always possible).
  • <= 45 degree approach (if greater, it is probably due to too much toggle input).
  • consistent docks so that catcher has the same picture all the time.
  • centre cell run on brake line and turn it in. Not too much force on the brake line as you will induce a turn/stall in the canopy/person you are docking on.
  • dock straight onto the centre cell, not swinging docks.
  • up momentum docks take pressure off lines of the canopy above and it loses aerodynamic control. This creates problems for the pilot of the formation and the person moving up the lines.


  • Right hand.
  • Right foot.
  • Left hand.
  • Left foot.
  • Lock in FAST.
  • Sort out crap FAST.
  • Hands on toggles before whistle for person leaving above you.
  • Hand out - gives rotator a bigger target to aim at, allows judges to see the catch sooner, and reduces the distance he has to travel.
  • Fast feet - catch with them. Have feet and hands in the lines as soon as possible.
  • Make the judges think you have caught someone if the key is being given.
  • Catch down and not up of possible.
  • Remain balanced in the harness.


  • Slight toggle input (enough to slide up evenly and not to fast or slow).
  • Maintain heading (pick heading and stick to it).
  • Prepare to leave.


  • don't get injured.
  • generate maximum speed.
  • let front risers up slowly, plane out of the high speed dive, and flare. Do not go from front riser dive to instant release and flare as you are more likely to induce a stall. This is an induced "accelerated stall".



  • Create, chant, focus, look, whatever.
  • if tired, psyche yourself up before / during the jump.


  • With guy before.
  • With guy after.
  • With opposite number (1 to 3 and 2 to 4 in formation).
  • Best advice.
  • Ask for advice.
  • The way I saw it.
  • Explode.
  • Quick, not fast.
  • Develop a training system (daily routine, yearly schedule + goals).
  • Team rules during training & comps.
  • Team rules away from training.
  • Set of guidelines.
  • Follow system through comp.
  • Team meetings.
  • Set up partners in a good way.


  • Perform better than before.
  • X maximum points.
  • Y average points.
  • z minimum points.
  • rotation times = ?.
  • dock quality. = ?
  • Smooth, no momentum docks.
  • Clean Catching & quick to toggles.
  • Never bust a quad (build over 3o seconds).
  • stack discipline = ?
  • hand speed  for toggles & ESPECIALLY INSIDE RISER
  • agree to training regime and jump numbers.
  • routine throughout training and comps.
  • don't sacrifice the effort (by stupid injuries).

Charting ideas:

  • moving average of;
    • Base - Pin
    • 3
    • 4
    • Quad
    • points without busts
    • judged points
    • rotation times
    • rotation times with momentum factor
  • absolute points, times, etc
  • points lost
  • percentage good docks (no momentum)


  • Quick positive comment on landing.
  • Pack & think of jump.
  • Debrief with video.
  • Focus on yourself and how you can improve.
  • Ask for help from others.


  • don't move around too much.
  • keep formation in frame.
  • ensure the leave and the dock are both visible.
  • ensure that the line/riser catch is visible prior to next leave.
  • team should help cameraperson out by consistent formations and rotations.
  • use different angles for a different perspective on what individuals are doing (i.e side on to see how far back people are leaving, move closer and make an objective that all rotators must stay in frame, etc)
  • cameraperson MUST show each team member exiting.


  • reducing the distance in each step of the jump
    • on leave, don't go too high
    • on rotation don't go to far out, back or low
    • in formation squat and be as close as possible to risers (reduce length of stack
    • reduce distance from maximum toggle input to riser grab (especially on inside when initiating the leave
  • reducing times at each stage
    • reduce the time delay between a person docking on the bottom and the top guy leaving (call early to allow for this).
    • using the drag technique that you can start leaving well before the dock but because you still have your feet in the lines you don't get busted. Ensure that the event judges are aware of this technique if being used.
  • keep formation  close to rotator by
    • keeping formation compressed
    • applying some brakes when at pilot
    • preceeding dock should be clean / no momentum


  • Use traditional competition timing techniques. OR
  • Time build as follows:
    • Start clock as soon as first person leaves.
    • Measure Base - Pin.
    • Measure 3rd.
    • Measure 4th and stop clock.

    Record these times.

  • Time Rotations as follows:
    • Start clock when first person leaves.
    • Measure "lap time" as the next person leaves, and so on.

This measurement technique has the following characteristics:

  • it DOES NOT include the time delay between fourth docking and the pilot leaving to commence the first rotation.
  • a team in training often waits for the formation to settle prior to commencement of the next rotation. Hence, this timing technique puts pressure on the rotator to make a clean dock prior to the next person exiting. It also puts pressure on both the rotator and catcher to call the next rotation as early as possible. Hence you can track poor docking technique and/or poor calling for the next rotation.
  • if the pilot is deaf or his response time if too slow, it will affect the time of the previous rotators rotation.

Exit Positions

  • floater - outside, front
  • inside

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This site is developed and maintained by Tom Begic. Send mail to Tom with any feedback.
Copyright 2005 OzCRW. Last modified: May 16, 2005