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[ Operational Regulations ] [ OR - CRW ] [ OR Training Table ] [ Sporting Code ] [ SC - CRW ]

    This page highlights the sections in the Australian Parachute Federation (APF) Operational Regulations (OR's) & Sporting Code (SC) that are directly related or of particular interest to CRW (Canopy Formation). All sections related to parachuting in general have been excluded. 

    I have left the complete contents section intact but highlighted the particular sections relevant to CRW in blue (i.e. section 6.5 of OR's). The OR's are dated 15th Dec 2004 & the SC is dated 3rd September 2004.

    Click here for complete rules & regulations.


APF Operational Regulations - CRW Specifics

AUSTRALIAN PARACHUTE FEDERATION INCORPORATED 

OPERATIONAL REGULATIONS 

15 DECEMBER 2004

CONTENTS

SECTION

  1. Definitions
  2. General conditions
  3. Certificates and licences 
    • 3.1 General conditions 
    • 3.2 APF Parachutist Certificate qualifications 
    • 3.3 Validation of Parachutist Certificates 
    • 3.4 Display Licence and Display Organiser's Licence qualifications 
    • 3.5 Display Licence and Display Organiser's Licence conditions 
    • 3.6 Visiting overseas parachutists 
    • 3.7 Pilot Qualifications
  4. Awards 
    • 4.1 Crest Awards 
    • 4.2 APF Recognition Awards (Moved to the APF Awards Handbook. December 2004)
  5. Safety requirements 
    • 5.1 General requirements 
    • 5.2 Operational requirements 
    • 5.3 Drop zone requirements 
    • 5.4 Relative descents 
    • 5.5 Night descents 
    • 5.6 Water descents 
    • 5.7 Display descents 
    • 5.8 Tandem descents 
    • 5.9 Freefly and skysurfing descents 
    • 5.9.A Camera descents 
    • 5.9.B Moved to 5.9. December 2004 
    • 5.10 Recent experience requirements
  6. Training requirements 
    • 6.1 General requirements 
    • 6.2 Training operations manuals 
    • 6.3 Student training descents 
    • 6.3.A Direct supervision of student and novice training descents 
    • 6.4 Flatfly RW training descents 
    • 6.5 CRW training descents 
    • 6.6 Night training descents 
    • 6.7 Deleted 
    • 6.8 Freefly RW training descents
  7. Records 
    • 7.1 Parachutist's log 
    • 7.2 Master log 
    • 7.3 Parachute maintenance log 
    • 7.4 Parachute packing record 
    • 7.5 Equipment defect reports 
    • 7.6 Incident reports 
    • 7.7 Display record 
    • 7.8 Inspection of records
  8. Authorities 
    • 8.1 DZSO powers 
    • 8.2 ASO powers 
    • 8.3 Board of Review powers 
    • 8.4 Technical Directors powers 
    • 8.5 Display Licence Examiner powers 
    • 8.6 APF Board powers 
    • 8.7 Waivers to these regulations 
    • 8.8 Operations outside usual areas
  9. Instructor and tutor ratings and endorsements 
    • 9.1 General conditions 
    • 9.2 Rating requirements 
    • 9.2.A Instructor/tutor endorsement requirements 
    • 9.3 Chief Instructors 
    • 9.4 Instructor and tutor privileges 
    • 9.5 Validity of ratings and endorsements 
    • 9.6 Instructor and tutor examiners and conduct of examinations 
    • 9.7 Examination papers 
    • 9.8 Suspension or cancellation of ratings and endorsements 
    • 9.9 Waivers to this section
  10. Parachute packing 
    • 10.1 Authority to pack 
    • 10.2 Training of packers 
    • 10.3 Packing criteria 
    • 10.4 Packer privileges
  11. Parachute rigging 
    • 11.1 Training of riggers 
    • 11.2 Rigger privileges 
    • 11.3 Manufacturers' recommended modifications
  12. Packer ratings and rigger ratings 
    • 12.1 General conditions 
    • 12.2 Packer rating prerequisites 
    • 12.3 Rigger rating prerequisites 
    • 12.4 Validity of ratings 
    • 12.5 Suspension or cancellation of ratings 
    • 12.6 Rigger Examiners

APPENDIXES

  1. Static-line student training descent table 
  2. Flatfly RW training descent table 
  3. CRW training descent table 
  4. Freefall student training descent table 
  5. Canopy handling training descent tables 
  6. Freefly RW training descent table

SECTION 1 - DEFINITIONS

Canopy Relative Descent: A descent in which the participants attempt to bring themselves together, or near to each other, after their parachutes are open.

Canopy Relative Work Trainer: An experienced canopy relative worker appointed by a Chief Instructor to give practical canopy relative work training, particularly through the stages of the APF CRW Training Descent Table.

CRW (Canopy Relative Work): Active participation in a canopy relative descent.

Definitions which relate to parachute packing and rigging

  • (a) Daily Maintenance means the replacement of component parts which require only assembly and no sewing other than hand tacking. 
  • (b) Maintenance means the restoration of any part of a parachute assembly to its original specifications and/or condition; it does not include alteration of existing components or construction of alternative sections to the parachute assembly. 
  • (c) Integral Part means any part which would affect the safe operation of the parachute. 
  • (d) Approved means the approval contained in the manufacturer's manual, APF manuals or other technical publication recognised by the APF.

DZSO (Drop Zone Safety Officer)

(c) When descents other than student or novice training descents are in progress, the DZSO must be: 

  • i The holder of at least a Certificate "D", and 
  • ii At least 17 years of age, and 
  • iii Appointed prior to the commencement of the operation.

Free Fall: The period between the parachutist exiting the aircraft and opening of the parachute on other than a static line descent.

Student Parachutist (Student): The holder of an APF Student Parachutist Licence but not an APF Parachutist Certificate.

SECTION 3 - CERTIFICATES AND LICENCES

3.2. APF PARACHUTIST CERTIFICATE QUALIFICATIONS

3.2.1. CERTIFICATE "A" CONDITIONS: Applicants must: 

  • (f) Have completed the Canopy Handling Training Descent Table shown in Appendix 5A of these regulations to the satisfaction of a Chief Instructor.

3.2.2. CERTIFICATE "B" CONDITIONS: Applicants must: 

  • (i) Have demonstrated the ability to determine the correct exit point.

3.2.4. CERTIFICATE "D" CONDITIONS: Applicants must: 

  • (d) Have demonstrated the ability to guide the aircraft to the exit point.

3.3. VALIDATION OF PARACHUTIST CERTIFICATES

3.3.2. The APF shall not issue or renew an FAI Sporting Licence unless at least 6 stable freefalls have been made by the certificate holder in the preceding 12 months.

SECTION 4 - AWARDS

4.1. CREST AWARDS

4.1.1. APF Crest Awards may be awarded to APF members and visiting parachutists who are financial members of their FAI affiliated national body.

4.1.8. CANOPY RELATIVE WORK CREST (CRWC) CONDITIONS: 

  • (a) The applicant must have participated in an eight-person CRW stack, as defined in the FAI Sporting Code; 
  • (b) The descent must be witnessed by two CRWC holders or two APF Canopy Formation Judges.

SECTION 5 - SAFETY REQUIREMENTS

5.1. GENERAL REQUIREMENTS

5.1.3. Parachutists shall not carry any object which if dropped would constitute a danger to property or persons on the ground during a descent unless that object is secured to their person.

5.1.5. A rigid helmet with a hard shell will be worn on all descents by persons who do not hold Certificate "C", thereafter at the discretion of the DZSO.

5.1.8. An approved and functioning visual altimeter set to indicate height above the DZ shall be worn on all descents. The altimeter shall be securely mounted so that the wearer can observe it without difficulty throughout the descent. An ASO may authorise an exception to this regulation for specified descents where the delay does not exceed 10 seconds. Such authorisation must be made in writing.

5.1.9. A sharp knife is to be available in the aircraft.

5.1.15. All freefall descents made by parachutists who do not hold a Certificate "E" must be made with equipment fitted with a functional reserve static line or an operational automatic activation device. The DZSO, in writing, may permit exemptions to this rule for specific descents.

5.1.16. Notwithstanding the provisions of 5.1.15, all freefall descents made by parachutists who do not hold a Certificate "D" must be made with equipment fitted with an operational automatic activation device.

5.2. OPERATIONAL REQUIREMENTS

5.2.1. All descents shall be made under the direct supervision of a DZSO.

5.2.4. Unless in accordance with the written specifications of CASA, all descents shall be made in meteorological conditions such that the target is clearly visible and the parachutist does not enter cloud.

5.2.4.A. A parachute descent shall not be made unless the parachutist has positively fixed his/her position in relation to the target.

5.2.8. An approved means of calculating the correct parachute opening point in relation to the target shall be used prior to commencing operations and at other times as directed by the DZSO.

5.2.14. Parachute descents shall not take place in controlled airspace except in accordance with an airways clearance, using the words "clear to drop". Prior co-ordination with Air Traffic Control (ATC) may be required, but as a minimum the pilot shall advise on first contact with ATC the desired altitude and the phrase "for parachute drop". If the parachutists will leave controlled airspace on descent, it is the pilot's responsibility to ascertain that the airspace below is clear before dropping parachutists. 

5.7. DISPLAY DESCENTS

5.7.13. Prior to a canopy relative descent being made at a display, all participants will have successfully completed at least 5 practice descents, all of which comply with the following conditions: 

  • (a) The descents shall have the same CRW actions to be performed at the display; 
  • (b) All participants land within 25 metres of the target centre.

5.8. TANDEM DESCENTS

5.8.8. A Tandem-Master carrying out a tandem descent shall not engage in canopy relative work.

5.9.A. CAMERA DESCENTS

5.9.A.1. A parachutist shall not carry a camera during a descent unless he or she is the holder of at least a Certificate "C" and has the approval of the DZSO.

5.9.A.3. An approved and functioning audible altimeter set to indicate height above the DZ shall be used on all descents where the parachutist intends to operate a camera in freefall. The audible altimeter shall be mounted so that the wearer can hear it without difficulty during the descent.

SECTION 6 - TRAINING REQUIREMENTS

6.2. TRAINING OPERATIONS MANUALS

6.2.2. The following subjects shall not be taught to student or novice parachutists except under the authority of an approved Training Operations Manual as per 6.2.1.

  • (j) CANOPY RELATIVE WORK TRAINING. 
  • (k) CANOPY HANDLING TRAINING

6.5. CRW TRAINING DESCENTS

6.5.1. All CRW training descents shall be made under the supervision of a Chief Instructor.

6.5.2. PREREQUISITES TO CRW: Before commencing CRW training the candidate should: 

  • (a) Have at least an APF Parachutist Certificate "A"; 
  • (b) Have a sound knowledge and understanding of the flight characteristics of the canopy to be used, demonstrated by the ability to:
    • Land consistently in the pit;
    • Perform front riser turns;
    • Steer the canopy with one brake on and one brake off;
    • Fly the canopy backward;
    • Use stall and recovery techniques; 
  • (c) Have completed a course of instruction covering the basic aspects of CRW, and has had his/her log book so endorsed by the Chief Instructor; 
  • (d) Have equipment that is suitable for CRW.

6.5.3. CRW TRAINING DESCENT TABLE. The CRW trainee's progression should conform to the CRW Training Descent Table shown in Appendix 3. Each stage should be completed satisfactorily before going on to the next. Each stage is a separate jump.

6.5.4. During CRW training descents, the minimum working height shall be 2000 feet.

SECTION 8 - AUTHORITIES

8.7. WAIVERS TO THESE REGULATIONS

8.7.1. The Director Safety, Director Instructors, and Director Rigging are empowered, with prior agreement of CASA, to waive regulations affecting their particular area of operations. All such waivers must be in writing with copies to the local Council, the APF Secretariat and CASA.

SECTION 10 - PARACHUTE PACKING

10.4. PACKER PRIVILEGES

10.4.1. The privileges of Packer "B" shall be to inspect, pack and carry out daily maintenance on main parachutes with which he is familiar and competent.

10.4.2. The privileges of a Packer "A" shall be:

  • (a) To exercise the privileges of a Packer "B"; 
  • (b) To inspect, pack, certify as airworthy and carry out daily maintenance on reserve and emergency parachutes with which he/she is familiar and competent.

SECTION 11 - PARACHUTE RIGGING

11.2. RIGGER PRIVILEGES

11.2.1. The privileges of a Rigger shall be:

  • (a) To exercise the privileges of a Packer "A"; 
  • (b) To carry out repairs provided the repair does not include any design alteration; 
  • (c) To carry out modifications or approved alterations to approved specifications; 
  • (d) To manufacture non-certified parachute parts, and, if a CASA certificate of approval is held, to manufacture certified parachute parts in accordance with the manufacturer's specification. 
  • (e) Deleted May 2002

For the purposes of this regulation a certified parachute part is defined as a part of an emergency or reserve parachute which is required to comply with a specification in accordance with CAO 103.18.2.2.

For the purposes of this regulation a non-certified parachute part is defined as a part of a parachute which is not required to comply with a specification in accordance with CAO 103.18.2.2.

APPENDIX 3: CRW TRAINING DESCENT TABLE 

Refer to Section 6.5.

Skill level 1 Canopy flying techniques 

  • Exercise 1: Front riser flying 
  • Exercise 2: Turning in formation 
  • Exercise 3: Front riser sashays

Skill level 2 Side docks (trainer on top)

Skill level 3 Side docks (trainee on top)

Skill level 4 Docking third and fourth, planing

Note: This table is defined and described in more detail in the APF CRW Training Descent Table Manual.

APPENDIX 5: CANOPY HANDLING TRAINING DESCENT TABLES

Appendix 5A: Exercises for Certificate "A"

In-air Exercises

  • Exercise 1. Slow flight and turns in a braked configuration 
  • Exercise 2. Static and dynamic stalls and stall recovery 
  • Exercise 3. "Maximum recovery" from a hook turn 
  • Exercise 4. Use of risers for turns

Landing Exercises

  • Exercise 1. Full glide square approach with a landing within 25 metres of the target centre
  • Exercise 2. Braked short approach with a landing within 25 metres of the target centre
  • Exercise 3. Keyhole approach with a landing within 25 metres of the target centre

Note: These exercises are defined and described in more detail in the APF Training Operations Manual.


APF Sporting Code - CRW Specifics

AUSTRALIAN PARACHUTE FEDERATION SPORTING CODE

(Sections 13 through 18 of the APF Operational Regulations)

3rd September 2004

CONTENTS

SECTION 13 CHAMPIONSHIP COMPETITIONS 

  • 13.1 General Conditions
  • 13.2 Bids to Conduct Championships 
  • 13.3 Finance, Accountability
  • 13.4 Pre-Competition Management 
  • 13.5 Provision of Facilities 
  • 13.6 Management of the Championships 
  • 13.7 Jumping at National Championships 
    • Annex 'A' - Financial Doctrine

SECTION 14 NATIONAL CHAMPIONSHIPS RULES 

  • 14.1 General Provisions 
  • 14.2 National Freefall Style and Accuracy Landing Championships, APF Water Swoop, Canopy Piloting Championships 
  • 14.3 National Formation Skydiving Championships 
    • Appendix 1 - 10 way Speed Star rules 
    • Appendix 2 - Guide for air to air judging 
    • Appendix 3 - Spring/Autumn Skydiving Leagues 
  • 14.4 National Canopy Formation Championships 
  • 14.5 National Para-Ski Championships 
  • 14.6 National Freestyle Skydiving, Skysurfing and Freeflying Championships 
    • Addendum A - Compulsory Moves Freestyle, Skysurfing and Freeflying 
    • Addendum B - Basic Orientations and Body Positions, Freestyle and Skysurfing 
    • Addendum C - Freestyle Skydiving and Skysurfing difficulty 
  • 14A National Intermediate Freeflying Championships 
    • Addendum A - Compulsory Moves Intermediate Freeflying 
  • 14B National Intermediate Skysurfing Championships 
    • Addendum A - Compulsory Moves Intermediate Skysurfing

SECTION 15 JUDGES 

  • 15.1 APF National Judges 
  • 15.2 Judging at National Championships 
  • 15.3 Competition Judging Rules 
  • 15.4 International Judges

SECTION 16 NATIONAL RECORDS 

  • 16.1 General Conditions 
  • 16.2 Record Classification 
  • 16.3 Competition Records 
  • 16.4 Performance Records 
  • 16.5 Australian classifications 
  • 16.6 Application for Recognition

SECTION 17 AUSTRALIAN PARACHUTE TEAM 

  • 17.1 Authorisation
  • 17.2 Team Selection
  • 17.3 Conditions of Membership 
  • 17.4 Delegation Officials 
  • 17.5 - 17.6 Duties, Responsibilities and Reports 
  • 17.7 Organisation Prior to the Team's Departure

SECTION 18 AUSTRALIAN PARACHUTE TEAM FUND

  • 18.1 Aim of the Fund 
  • 18.2 Management 
  • 18.3 Disbursement

    The APF Sporting Code is updated annually, incorporating changes to competition rules by the International Parachute Commission of the FAI, and changes approved by the APF Board of Directors at the annual Board meeting. These amendments generally result from recommendations by the Competition and Judging Workgroup at the annual Technical Conference and Competitors' Meetings held at National Championships.

SECTION 13 - CHAMPIONSHIP COMPETITIONS

13.4 Pre-Competition Management

13.4.1 The Organiser shall distribute a program of the Championships to all APF member organisations and participating countries at least four months prior to the event. The program shall contain details of the venues, dates, DZ elevation, type of aircraft, exit speeds, fees, accommodation and other information useful to the competitors.

13.5 Provision Of Facilities

13.5.2 In Formation Skydiving events, the Organiser shall arrange for practice jumps to be available from the aircraft to be used in the Championships to be on site at least two weeks prior to the start of competition.

13.6 Management Of The Championships

Aircraft And Flight Patterns

13.6.10 In Formation Skydiving and Canopy Formation events, the aircraft conditions shall be equal for all teams. If more than one configuration of aircraft is provided, each team shall make the same drawn rounds from the same aircraft configuration.

13.7 Jumping At National Championships - Entries And Fees

Determination Of National Champions

13.7.19 Team Championships may be held provided there are at least three (3) teams.

Awards

13.7.23 Provided there are at least eight (8) entrants (individuals or teams), bronze medallions shall be awarded to those placing third in any championships category.

Exits

13.7.26 In events where the exit is controlled by the Judges using ground-to-air radio, exit commands will be: RUN-IN, STANDBY, EXIT, and shall be relayed to the competitors by the aircraft crew.

13.7.27 Once any jumper has left the aircraft after the RUN-IN command has been given, the jump will be scored.

13.7.28 Once the STANDBY command has been given, the EXIT command must be given. The time period between STANDBY and EXIT shall be approximately 10 seconds.

13.7.29 The Judges may specify a time period within which teams or individuals must exit the aircraft after the EXIT command has been given. Teams or individuals which exit outside this time limit will not be granted a rejump if they are not observed by the Judges.

SECTION 14 - NATIONAL CHAMPIONSHIPS RULES

14.1 GENERAL PROVISIONS

14.1.2 Training and Other Jumps 

  • (1) Training jumps from the aircraft to be used in the competition may be commenced in the days prior to the start of the Championships. The Judges and associated equipment shall be available on site to judge and score training jumps at competitors' request. 
  • (2) Training jumps shall not be made once an event has commenced. In those events where a draw is made to determine the test, the event shall be deemed to have commenced when the draw is made. Teams or individuals which practice or conspire to practice a drawn jump on or off the competition site shall be disqualified from the event. 
  • (3) Training jumps made during the period prior to the competition will be evaluated if requested, provided the programme or sequence has been submitted to the Judges in advance. 
  • (4) Parachute descents, other than competition jumps, shall not be made during the Championships unless authorised by the Meet Director and Chief Judge.

14.1.4 Order of Events 

  • (1) The Meet Director, in close co-operation with the Chief Judge, must take maximum advantage of favourable meteorological conditions. 
  • (3) In order to ensure completion, or if the weather requires it, the Meet Director may run two or more events simultaneously.

14.1.6 Calling the Jumpers Competitors must be called to the loading area approximately 15 minutes prior to boarding the aircraft. A second 5 minute call must also be made. Competitors who do not arrive in time to board the aircraft must receive the maximum or minimum score (as appropriate) for that jump. Each competitor is allowed a minimum time of 45 minutes from arriving at the competition site to the first call for the next jump, except for Canopy Formation events, Intermediate Formation Skydiving events, and rejumps. For Canopy Formation competitors in the 4 way rotations and 8 way speed events, the minimum allowed time from arriving at the competition site to the first call for the next jump, except for rejumps and the start, or restart of the event is thirty (30) minutes.

14.1.7 Cameraman and other persons or objects on board or in the air. 

  • (3) A rejump may be offered if the majority of the Judges conclude that a team's performance has been adversely affected by an object in the air (e.g. aircraft, canopies). The Judges' decision is no ground for a protest.

14.1.9 Aircraft Jump Run 

  • (1) The speed of the aircraft during the jump run and exit shall be within 5 knots of the airspeed specified by the Organiser in the program for the competition. 
  • (3) The competitor or team is responsible for ensuring the aircraft is at the proper altitude and airspeed and is not obliged to exit on that jump run if the altitude or airspeed are outside the limits specified above.

RULES SPECIFIC TO THE COMPETITION

14.1.16 Title:-"The xxth Australian Parachute Championships in 

  • *Canopy Formation 

14.4 NATIONAL CANOPY FORMATION CHAMPIONSHIPS

14.4.1 APF Authority. The competition will be conducted under the authority granted by the APF, according to the regulations of the APF Sporting Code and these rules.

14.4.2 Aims of the Championships. 

  • (a) To determine the Australian Champions of Canopy Formation in: 
    • Four Way Sequential Event; 
    • Four Way Rotation Event; 
    • Eight Way Speed Formation Event. 
  • (b) To determine the Australian standings of the competing teams. 
  • (c) To establish Australian Canopy Formation records. 
  • (d) To promote and develop Canopy Formation parachuting as a discipline. 
  • (e) To exchange ideas and strengthen friendly relations between the skydivers, Judges and others. 
  • (f) To allow participants to share and exchange experience, knowledge and information. 
  • (g) To improve judging methods and practices.

14.4.3 Definitions of words and phrases used in these Rules. 

  • Formation: consists of 3 or more jumpers and canopies linked by grips, correct or not. 
  • Grip: Consists of a hold on the "A" lines, or front risers so that a formation is built in accordance with the diagrams. 
  • Configurations: 
    • (i) STACK:- the shoulder of the upper jumper must be above the upper surface of the lower canopy. The grip must be on a line attached to the centre cell. 
    • (ii) STAIRSTEP:- the shoulder of the upper jumper must be above the upper surface of the lower canopy. The grip must be on the outside "A" line of the end cell. The grip must be taken with the inside leg or foot and the torso must be on the outside of the canopy: this may include an additional hand grip, if desired. 
    • (iii) PLANE:- the head of the upper jumper must be below the lower surface of the lower canopy.The grip must be on the front risers or a line attached to the centre cell. 
    • (iv) PLANE/STACK:- Plane, stack or any position on a centre line between these configurations.

    A correct grip must be maintained. The above configurations only apply for complete formations.

  •  Intermediate: Stage between two formations. An intermediate formation must be flown and remain intact with the correct grips. 
  • Sequence: A series of formations and intermediates. 
  • Working time: The time allowed for a team to perform the jump. 
  • Dive Pool: Consists of random (single formation) and block sequence (two formations and an intermediate) as illustrated in the dive pool.

14.4.4 The Events. The discipline has the following events: 

  • Four Way Sequential Event; 
  • Four Way Rotation Event; 
  • Eight Way Speed Formation Event. 

Teams are composed as follows: 

  • A 4-way team in each event consisting of 6 members, any of who may be the team videographer. 
  • An 8-way team consisting of 10 members, any of who may be the team videographer.

14.4.5 Objective of the events: The accumulated total of all rounds, in accordance with 14.4.21 and 14.4.23 is used to determine the final rank of the teams and declare the winner. 

14.4.6 Performance requirement: 

  • 14.4.6.1 4-way sequential event: Each round consists of a repeatable sequence drawn from the dive pools.
  • 14.4.6.2 4-way rotation event: Each round consists of successive 4-way plane/stack formations made by rotations. Rotations must be made by the top competitor in the complete formation dropping grips, flying to the bottom of the formation and again completing a 4-way plane/stack formation. The intermediate formation is the remaining correctly completed 3-way plane/stack formation. 
  • 14.4.6.3 8-way speed formation event: Each round consists of a single formation drawn from the dive pool. The formation must be held for at least five seconds. The holding time may run over the working time.

14.4.7 General Rules. Canopy Formation must not be performed using a reserve parachute.

14.4.8 Meteorological Conditions. 

  • (a) When air turbulence is apparent, the Meet Director may decide to raise the exit altitude. The Meet Director must inform all jumpers of the decision. This decision is not open to protest. 
  • (b) Teams may refuse to jump in rain or turbulent conditions. The Meet Director, Nationals Controller and the Chief Judge after consultation with all Team captains, by unanimous decision may decide to continue the event. If a team aborts a jump a second time for the same reason, that team shall not jump that round and will be awarded the maximum or minimum score whichever is worse. 
  • (c) Rain during a jump is not grounds for protest.

14.4.9 Break off. All form of canopy formation jumping must cease by 750 metres (~ 2500 feet). The Nationals Controller has the authority to disqualify a team that breaks this rule, for that round or the whole event.

14.4.10 Miscellaneous Equipment. Competitors must carry the following equipment: 

  • (a) Every team member must carry a hook-knife for emergency use; 
  • (b) Altimeter.

14.4.11 The Draw. The draw of the sequences and the jump order will be supervised by the Chief Judge and teams will be given not less than two hours knowledge of the results of the draw before the competition starts.

14.4.12 Training Jumps. Training jumps may be made only before the draw is made. If time allows, these jumps may be assessed by the Judges and the score may be published.

14.4.13 Order of jumping. The jump order will be used for each round until there is a break in jumping of more than 30 minutes at the end of a round (rejumps ignored). The jump order for the next rounds will be in the reverse order of ranking (the order in which tied teams jump will be determined by their original draw). Reverse order of ranking must be used for the semi-final and final rounds.

14.4.14 Exit Procedure. 

  • (a) There is no limitation on the exit other than those imposed by the Chief Pilot for safety reasons. The pilot must maintain the altitude and direction until the aircraft is well clear of the jumpers. 
  • (b) Teams will be responsible for their own exits once the aircraft has commenced jump run. 
  • (c) The exit of the first team member must be clearly shown on the team's video recording. 
  • (d) The pilot chute must not be withdrawn from the equipment until the competitor is clear of the aircraft.

 14.4.15 Rejumps. 

  • (a) Problems with a team's equipment shall not be grounds for rejump. 
  • (b) Where formations, inters or total separations are not visually judgeable due to meteorological conditions, or factors relating to the video equipment, the video evidence may be considered insufficient for judging purposes. In this case the Video Review Panel will assess the conditions and circumstances surrounding that occurrence and may award a rejump. Should the Video Review Panel determine that there has been an intentional abuse of the rules by the team, or by the videographer on behalf of the team, no rejump will be granted and they will receive zero points or maximum time for that jump. 
  • (c) Contact or other interference between a team and its videographer are not reasons for the team to request a rejump.

14.4.16 Scoring. 

  • (a) All formations and intermediate requirements must be completed and recorded in such a manner that the Judges may determine that the required performance has been achieved. Provision of video evidence for judging purposes is the responsibility of the team. 
  • (b) If a competitor or team is disqualified for a jump, they will receive zero points or the maximum time for that jump.

RULES SPECIFIC TO THE EVENTS

14.4.17 4-Way Sequential Event 

  • (a) Exit altitude is 2,500 metres (~8,200 feet) AGL with a working time of 150 seconds. 
  • (b) The draw of the sequences: Each block sequence or random will be drawn only once for each competition. All rounds shall consist of four or five scoring formations, whichever number is reached first. 
  • (c) Scoring: Teams will be awarded one point for the first formation and each subsequent formation or formations preceded by an intermediate correctly completed within the working time. Teams will not be awarded points for incorrect formations. There will be no penalty. Omissions: Omission of a formation will stop the scoring at that formation. The next formation to score is the second correctly completed formation following the last omission. Scoring may also continue if the team goes back to correctly complete the omitted formation, incorrect formation or formation prior to the incorrect intermediate requirement. An attempt to complete a formation, although incorrect or incomplete, demonstrated by at least 3 canopies connected with grips, and in the formation required by the drawn sequence, will be judged as an incorrect formation, not as an omission. 
  • (d) Each formation and intermediate requirement must be performed in accordance with the illustrations in the drawn sequence. Where there is no intermediate requirement between formations, there must be complete separation of all canopies. Mirror images are acceptable for a complete blocks and random formations. Formations need not be symmetrical. At the end of a sequence there must be complete separation before restarting the sequence as drawn.

14.4.18 4-Way Rotation Event 

  • (a) Exit altitude is 2,150 metres (~7,000 feet) with a working time of 90 seconds. 
  • (b) The Working Time and Scoring begins with the first 4-way plane/stack formation whether correct or not, or 30 seconds after the exit of the first team member, excluding the team's videographer, whichever is first. One point is scored for every correctly completed 4-way plane/stack formation within the working time, according to the performance requirement.

14.4.19 8-Way Speed Event 

  • (a) Exit altitude shall be 1,850 metres (~6,000 feet) AGL with a working time of 120 seconds. 
  • (b) Each round consists of a single formation as shown in the dive pool. A draw will be made for the first four rounds. The formations will be replaced to enable the draw for the remaining rounds. 
  • (c) Scoring; The score for the jump shall be the time in seconds and hundredths of seconds to complete a correct 8-Way formation, provided the formation is held for five seconds. If the formation separates within working time, the team may rebuild the formation. The holding time may run over the working time. The maximum score for any round shall be 120 seconds.

14.4.20 Air to Air Video Recording 

  • (a) Each team shall provide the video evidence required to judge each round. Only one of the team's members may jump on each jump as a videographer. 
  • (b) Video equipment shall consist of the complete video system or systems used to record the video evidence of the team's performance, including camera(s), video tape(s), tape recorder(s) and battery(ies). 
  • (c) A Video Controller will be appointed by the Chief Judge prior to the start of the Judges' Conference. The Video Controller may inspect a team's video equipment to verify that it meets the competition requirements. Inspections may be made at any time during the competition which does not interfere with a team's performance, as determined by the Event Judge. If any video equipment does not meet the requirements determined by the Video Controller, this equipment will be deemed to be unuseable for the competition. 
  • (d) The videographer must deliver the video equipment to the Chief Judge or their designee as soon as possible after each jump is completed. Only one video tape will be dubbed and judged. Secondary video evidence may only be used where there is insufficient video evidence due to meterological or technical reasons. 
  • (e) A Video Review Panel will be established consisting of the Chief Judge, President of the Jury and Nationals Controller. Decisions rendered by the Video Review Panel shall be final and not subject to protest or review by the Jury. If the Video Review Panel determines that the video equipment has been deliberately tampered with, the team will receive no score for all rounds involving this tampering.

14.4.21 Judging Rules 

14.4.21.1 Observing the Performance 

  • (i) Each performance must be evaluated by a panel of three Judges. At a National Championship, the judging panel should have a majority of Judges who are Nationals-endorsed for Canopy Formation
  • (ii) The Judges will watch each performance once at normal speed. At the request of any working Judge, a second viewing at normal speed may be made. A third viewing at normal speed may only occur where authorised by the Event Judge. 
  • (iii) The Judges may use an electronic scoring system to record their evaluation of the performance if available. 
  • (iv) The Judges may correct their evaluation record after the jump has been judged. At the end of working time, freeze frame of the image must be applied. 
  • (v) The Judges shall start the timing when the first team member (excluding the team's videographer) leaves the aircraft. 
  • (vi) If the Judges use score sheets to record their evaluation, they will operate their own chronometer and use the signs below to record their assessment. The score sheets of all Judges must be collected immediately after the Judges have scored the jump for checking by the Event Judge and Chief Judge. Freeze frame of the video image need not be used.
    • Situation: 
      • - Correct scoring formation  
      • 0 - Penalty  
      • NJ - Formations, inters or total separations not visually judgeable  
      • NV - Insufficient video evidence 
      • // - End of working time  
  • (vii) The determination of time awarded in the 8-way event: If 3 scores fall within a 3 seconds spread, the score for that jump is the average of these. If only 2 scores fall within a 3 seconds spread, the score for that jump is the average of the two with the third score discarded. If no scores fall within a 3 second spread, then the Event Judge shall consult with the judging panel to determine whether there is an actual time of completion for the formation. In this case, additional viewings may be used.

14.4.22 Programme of events 

  • (a) The Australian Canopy Formation Championships comprises the following events: 
    • 4-Way Sequential Event 8 rounds; 
    • 4-Way Rotation Event. 8 rounds; 
    • 8-Way Speed Event 8 rounds; 
  • (b) The 7th round of each event shall be the Semi-Final Round in which teams holding the first ten placings shall participate. 
  • (c) The 8th round of each event shall be the the Final Round in which teams holding the first six placings shall participate. 
  • (d) A minimum of 1 round must be completed to establish Australian Champions in any event.

14.4.23 Determination of Australian Champions. The Australian Champions are the teams 

  • a) Where only one round is completed, have the best score for that one round, or. 
  • b) Where more than one round is completed, have the best score after discarding their worst performance in the completed rounds calculated as follows:
    • 4-WAY EVENTS: 
      • Have the highest number of formations in the remaining completed rounds. 
      • If two or more teams have an equal number of formations, the first three places will be decided by the highest number of points in any completed round for each team. 
      • If there is still a tie, the the team with the fastest time in those rounds with the highest points wins the tied place. 
    • 8-WAY SPEED FORMATION: 
      • Has the most 8-ways in the remaining completed rounds. 
      • If two or more teams have an equal number of 8-ways, the winner is that team with the lowest total time for these rounds. 
      • If there is still a tie, the first three places will be decided by the fastest times for any completed round.

14.4.24 Dive pool. :Formation diagrams Definitions used in the formation diagrams are as follows: 

  • Canopy identification
  • Block sequence numbers = 1 2 3 4 
  • Random formation letters = A B C D 
  • Intermediate requirement = INTER

SECTION 15 - JUDGES

15.1 APF Judges

15.1.2 APF Judge Ratings shall be endorsed to indicate in which categories the Judge is qualified. Categories are: 

  • (d) Canopy Formation 

Where a Nationals-endorsed APF Judge is awarded an FAI Parachuting Judge rating, the APF rating should be endorsed to indicate in which categories the FAI rating is held.

Rating Criteria 

15.1.6 APF Judge Standard. The standard of judging required to obtain or retain an APF Judge rating shall be:

  • (c) Formation Skydiving and Canopy Formation. Obtain a score for 95% of the jumps evaluated while active as an Formation Skydiving and/or Canopy Formation Judge. These scores must meet the following assessment standard: 
    • At least 70% of the scoring of formations and transitions must agree with the official score. 
    • At least 70% of the working time evaluations must agree with the official times. 
    • At least 70% of the scoring of infringements must agree with the official score. (Note: allowance is to be made for "judgement" calls.)

15.1.6.1 Nationals-endorsement standard. The standard of judging required to obtain or retain a Nationals-endorsement for any category shall be: 

  • (c) Formation Skydiving and Canopy Formation Obtain a score for 95% of the jumps evaluated while active as an Formation Skydiving and/or Canopy Formation Judge. These scores must meet the following assessment standard:
    • At least 75% of the scoring of formations and transitions must agree with the official score.
    • At least 75% of the working time evaluations must agree with the official times.
    • At least 75% of the scoring of infringements must agree with the official score. (Note: allowance is to be made for "judgement" calls)

SECTION 16 - NATIONAL RECORDS

16.3 Competition Records

16.3.2 Joint Record holders Joint Record holders in Freefall Style, Formation Skydiving, Canopy Formation and Artistic Events: 

  • (1) If two or more competitors or teams achieve the same record performance during the same round and thereby break an existing record, the new record shall be registered in the names of all the competitors or teams involved. 
  • (2) If a competitor or team achieves a performance during a later round in the same event, which is equal to a new record performance achieved during an earlier round in that event, no recognition will be given to that performance as being a record performance.

16.3.6 Canopy Formation records 

  • (a) 4-Way Rotation. The record performance for a 4-way rotation is the score in one round in accordance with the APF Sporting Code. 
  • (b) Longest Sequence. The record performance for the longest sequence is the score in one round in accordance with the APF Sporting Code. 
  • (c) 8-Way Speed Formation. The record performance for an 8-way speed formation is the time in which eight persons form a complete connected eight canopy formation in accordance with the APF Sporting Code.

16.4 Performance Records

16.4.3 Largest Formation records 

  • (1) The record performance for the largest formation is the number of persons in one formation. One written plan describing the formation to be attempted and the personnel involved must be submitted in advance to the Judges. The formation must be completed as described with all named personnel in the formation 
  • (2) The exit procedure for the largest formation is the same as for the longest sequence except that more than one aircraft may be used. 
  • (3) If two or more teams achieve an identical record performance on the same calendar day and thereby break an existing record, the new record shall be registered in the name of all the individuals or teams involved.

16.5 Record Classification 

16.5.1 Australian competition and performance records shall have the following main classifications. 

  • 16.5.2 
    • Highest Four Way Canopy Formation Score.................. Class K
    • Fastest Eight Way Canopy Formation............................. Class L
    • Largest Canopy Formation ............................................... Class M

16.5.3 All classifications may be further classified as: 

  • (a) Women.
  • (b) Men 
  • (c) Open

16.5.4 All classifications may be further classified as: 

  • (a) Day 
  • (b) Night

16.5.5 Night shall be defined as the time between 1 hour after official sunset and 1 hour before official sunrise.

16.5.6 Classification K shall be further classified as: 

  • (a) Rotations 
  • (b) Sequential

SECTION 17 - AUSTRALIAN PARACHUTE TEAM

17.2 Australian Parachute Team Selection 

17.2.1 Eligibility for automatic selection in Formation Skydiving and Canopy Formation events is restricted to teams placing 1st or 2nd at the most recent National Championships. Inclusion of competitors below these levels shall be at the discretion of the APF Board.

17.2.7 The composition of a Formation Skydiving or Canopy Formation team may be changed after selection provided at least 60% of the original team members remain. For teams in Skysurfing and Freestyle evnts, only the Videographer may change. For the purpose of this regulation, the original team shall be those parachutists shown in the registration records of the most recent APF National Championships as members of the team.

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Copyright 2005 OzCRW. Last modified: May 16, 2005