This page highlights the sections in the
Australian Parachute Federation (APF) Operational Regulations (OR's) &
Sporting Code (SC) that are directly related or of particular interest to CRW
(Canopy Formation). All sections related to parachuting in general have
I have left the complete contents section intact but
highlighted the particular sections relevant to CRW in blue (i.e. section 6.5 of OR's).
The OR's are dated 15th Dec 2004 & the SC is dated 3rd September 2004.
Click here for
complete rules & regulations.
APF Operational Regulations - CRW Specifics
AUSTRALIAN PARACHUTE FEDERATION INCORPORATED
15 DECEMBER 2004
- General conditions
- Certificates and licences
- 3.1 General conditions
- 3.2 APF Parachutist Certificate
- 3.3 Validation of Parachutist
- 3.4 Display Licence and Display Organiser's Licence
- 3.5 Display Licence and Display Organiser's Licence conditions
- 3.6 Visiting overseas parachutists
- 3.7 Pilot Qualifications
- 4.1 Crest Awards
- 4.2 APF Recognition Awards (Moved to the APF Awards Handbook. December
- Safety requirements
- 5.1 General requirements
- 5.2 Operational requirements
- 5.3 Drop zone requirements
- 5.4 Relative descents
- 5.5 Night descents
- 5.6 Water descents
- 5.7 Display descents
- 5.8 Tandem descents
- 5.9 Freefly and skysurfing descents
- 5.9.A Camera descents
- 5.9.B Moved to 5.9. December 2004
- 5.10 Recent experience requirements
- Training requirements
- 6.1 General requirements
- 6.2 Training operations manuals
- 6.3 Student training descents
- 6.3.A Direct supervision of student and novice training descents
- 6.4 Flatfly RW training descents
- 6.5 CRW training descents
- 6.6 Night training descents
- 6.7 Deleted
- 6.8 Freefly RW training descents
- 7.1 Parachutist's log
- 7.2 Master log
- 7.3 Parachute maintenance log
- 7.4 Parachute packing record
- 7.5 Equipment defect reports
- 7.6 Incident reports
- 7.7 Display record
- 7.8 Inspection of records
- 8.1 DZSO powers
- 8.2 ASO powers
- 8.3 Board of Review powers
- 8.4 Technical Directors powers
- 8.5 Display Licence Examiner powers
- 8.6 APF Board powers
- 8.7 Waivers to these regulations
- 8.8 Operations outside usual areas
- Instructor and tutor ratings and endorsements
- 9.1 General conditions
- 9.2 Rating requirements
- 9.2.A Instructor/tutor endorsement requirements
- 9.3 Chief Instructors
- 9.4 Instructor and tutor privileges
- 9.5 Validity of ratings and endorsements
- 9.6 Instructor and tutor examiners and conduct of examinations
- 9.7 Examination papers
- 9.8 Suspension or cancellation of ratings and endorsements
- 9.9 Waivers to this section
- Parachute packing
- 10.1 Authority to pack
- 10.2 Training of packers
- 10.3 Packing criteria
- 10.4 Packer privileges
- Parachute rigging
- 11.1 Training of riggers
- 11.2 Rigger privileges
- 11.3 Manufacturers' recommended modifications
- Packer ratings and rigger ratings
- 12.1 General conditions
- 12.2 Packer rating prerequisites
- 12.3 Rigger rating prerequisites
- 12.4 Validity of ratings
- 12.5 Suspension or cancellation of ratings
- 12.6 Rigger Examiners
- Static-line student training descent table
- Flatfly RW training descent table
- CRW training descent table
- Freefall student training descent table
- Canopy handling training descent tables
- Freefly RW training descent table
SECTION 1 - DEFINITIONS
Canopy Relative Descent: A descent in which the participants attempt
to bring themselves together, or near to each other, after their parachutes are
Canopy Relative Work Trainer: An experienced
canopy relative worker
appointed by a Chief Instructor to give practical canopy relative work training,
particularly through the stages of the APF CRW Training Descent Table.
CRW (Canopy Relative Work): Active participation in a
canopy relative descent.
Definitions which relate to parachute packing and rigging:
- (a) Daily Maintenance means the replacement of component parts which
require only assembly and no sewing other than hand tacking.
- (b) Maintenance means the restoration of any part of a parachute
assembly to its original specifications and/or condition; it does not
include alteration of existing components or construction of alternative
sections to the parachute assembly.
- (c) Integral Part means any part which would affect the safe operation
of the parachute.
- (d) Approved means the approval contained in the manufacturer's
manual, APF manuals or other technical publication recognised by the
DZSO (Drop Zone Safety Officer):
(c) When descents other than student or novice training descents are in
progress, the DZSO must be:
- i The holder of at least a Certificate "D", and
- ii At least 17 years of age, and
- iii Appointed prior to the commencement of the operation.
Free Fall: The period between the parachutist exiting the aircraft and
opening of the parachute on other than a static line descent.
Student Parachutist (Student): The holder of an APF Student
Parachutist Licence but not an APF Parachutist Certificate.
SECTION 3 - CERTIFICATES AND LICENCES
3.2. APF PARACHUTIST CERTIFICATE QUALIFICATIONS
3.2.1. CERTIFICATE "A" CONDITIONS: Applicants must:
- (f) Have completed the Canopy Handling Training Descent Table shown in
Appendix 5A of these regulations to the satisfaction of a Chief
3.2.2. CERTIFICATE "B" CONDITIONS: Applicants must:
- (i) Have demonstrated the ability to determine the correct exit point.
3.2.4. CERTIFICATE "D" CONDITIONS: Applicants must:
- (d) Have demonstrated the ability to guide the aircraft to the exit
3.3. VALIDATION OF PARACHUTIST CERTIFICATES
3.3.2. The APF shall not issue or renew an FAI Sporting Licence unless at
least 6 stable freefalls have been made by the certificate holder in the
preceding 12 months.
SECTION 4 - AWARDS
4.1. CREST AWARDS
4.1.1. APF Crest Awards may be awarded to APF members and visiting
parachutists who are financial members of their FAI affiliated national body.
4.1.8. CANOPY RELATIVE WORK CREST (CRWC) CONDITIONS:
- (a) The applicant must have participated in an eight-person CRW
as defined in the FAI Sporting Code;
- (b) The descent must be witnessed by two CRWC holders or two APF
SECTION 5 - SAFETY REQUIREMENTS
5.1. GENERAL REQUIREMENTS
5.1.3. Parachutists shall not carry any object which if dropped would
constitute a danger to property or persons on the ground during a descent unless
that object is secured to their person.
5.1.5. A rigid helmet with a hard shell will be worn on all descents by
persons who do not hold Certificate "C", thereafter at the discretion
of the DZSO.
5.1.8. An approved and functioning visual altimeter set to indicate height
above the DZ shall be worn on all descents. The altimeter shall be securely
mounted so that the wearer can observe it without difficulty throughout the
descent. An ASO may authorise an exception to this regulation for specified
descents where the delay does not exceed 10 seconds. Such authorisation must be
made in writing.
5.1.9. A sharp knife is to be available in the aircraft.
5.1.15. All freefall descents made by parachutists who do not hold a
Certificate "E" must be made with equipment fitted with a functional
reserve static line or an operational automatic activation device. The DZSO, in
writing, may permit exemptions to this rule for specific descents.
5.1.16. Notwithstanding the provisions of 5.1.15, all freefall descents made
by parachutists who do not hold a Certificate "D" must be made with
equipment fitted with an operational automatic activation device.
5.2. OPERATIONAL REQUIREMENTS
5.2.1. All descents shall be made under the direct supervision of a DZSO.
5.2.4. Unless in accordance with the written specifications of CASA, all
descents shall be made in meteorological conditions such that the target is
clearly visible and the parachutist does not enter cloud.
5.2.4.A. A parachute descent shall not be made unless the parachutist has
positively fixed his/her position in relation to the target.
5.2.8. An approved means of calculating the correct parachute opening point
in relation to the target shall be used prior to commencing operations and at
other times as directed by the DZSO.
5.2.14. Parachute descents shall not take place in controlled airspace except
in accordance with an airways clearance, using the words "clear to
drop". Prior co-ordination with Air Traffic Control (ATC) may be required,
but as a minimum the pilot shall advise on first contact with ATC the desired
altitude and the phrase "for parachute drop". If the parachutists will
leave controlled airspace on descent, it is the pilot's responsibility to
ascertain that the airspace below is clear before dropping parachutists.
5.7. DISPLAY DESCENTS
5.7.13. Prior to a canopy relative descent being made at a display, all
participants will have successfully completed at least 5 practice descents, all
of which comply with the following conditions:
- (a) The descents shall have the same CRW actions to be performed at the
- (b) All participants land within 25 metres of the target centre.
5.8. TANDEM DESCENTS
5.8.8. A Tandem-Master carrying out a tandem descent shall not engage in
canopy relative work.
5.9.A. CAMERA DESCENTS
5.9.A.1. A parachutist shall not carry a camera during a descent unless he or
she is the holder of at least a Certificate "C" and has the approval
of the DZSO.
5.9.A.3. An approved and functioning audible altimeter set to indicate height
above the DZ shall be used on all descents where the parachutist intends to
operate a camera in freefall. The audible altimeter shall be mounted so that the
wearer can hear it without difficulty during the descent.
SECTION 6 - TRAINING REQUIREMENTS
6.2. TRAINING OPERATIONS MANUALS
6.2.2. The following subjects shall not be taught to student or novice
parachutists except under the authority of an approved Training Operations
Manual as per 6.2.1.
- (j) CANOPY RELATIVE WORK TRAINING.
- (k) CANOPY HANDLING TRAINING
6.5. CRW TRAINING DESCENTS
6.5.1. All CRW training descents shall be made under the supervision of a
6.5.2. PREREQUISITES TO CRW: Before commencing CRW training the candidate
- (a) Have at least an APF Parachutist Certificate "A";
- (b) Have a sound knowledge and understanding of the flight
characteristics of the canopy to be used, demonstrated by the ability to:
- Land consistently in the pit;
- Perform front riser turns;
- Steer the
canopy with one brake on and one brake off;
- Fly the canopy backward;
- Use stall and recovery techniques;
- (c) Have completed a course of instruction covering the basic aspects of
CRW, and has had his/her log book so endorsed by the Chief
- (d) Have equipment that is suitable for CRW.
6.5.3. CRW TRAINING DESCENT TABLE. The CRW trainee's progression should
conform to the CRW Training Descent Table shown in Appendix 3. Each stage should
be completed satisfactorily before going on to the next. Each stage is a
6.5.4. During CRW training descents, the minimum working height shall be 2000
SECTION 8 - AUTHORITIES
8.7. WAIVERS TO THESE REGULATIONS
8.7.1. The Director Safety, Director Instructors, and Director Rigging are
empowered, with prior agreement of CASA, to waive regulations affecting their
particular area of operations. All such waivers must be in writing with copies
to the local Council, the APF Secretariat and CASA.
SECTION 10 - PARACHUTE PACKING
10.4. PACKER PRIVILEGES
10.4.1. The privileges of Packer "B" shall be to inspect, pack and
carry out daily maintenance on main parachutes with which he is familiar and
10.4.2. The privileges of a Packer "A" shall be:
- (a) To exercise the privileges of a Packer "B";
- (b) To inspect, pack, certify as airworthy and carry out daily
maintenance on reserve and emergency parachutes with which he/she is
familiar and competent.
SECTION 11 - PARACHUTE RIGGING
11.2. RIGGER PRIVILEGES
11.2.1. The privileges of a Rigger shall be:
- (a) To exercise the privileges of a Packer "A";
- (b) To carry out repairs provided the repair does not include any design
- (c) To carry out modifications or approved alterations to approved
- (d) To manufacture non-certified parachute parts, and, if a CASA
certificate of approval is held, to manufacture certified parachute parts
in accordance with the manufacturer's specification.
- (e) Deleted May 2002
For the purposes of this regulation a certified parachute part is defined as
a part of an emergency or reserve parachute which is required to comply with a
specification in accordance with CAO 126.96.36.199.
For the purposes of this regulation a non-certified parachute part is defined
as a part of a parachute which is not required to comply with a specification in
accordance with CAO 188.8.131.52.
APPENDIX 3: CRW TRAINING DESCENT TABLE
Refer to Section 6.5.
Skill level 1 Canopy flying techniques
- Exercise 1: Front riser flying
- Exercise 2: Turning in formation
- Exercise 3: Front riser sashays
Skill level 2 Side docks (trainer on top)
Skill level 3 Side docks (trainee on top)
Skill level 4 Docking third and fourth, planing
Note: This table is defined and described in more detail in the APF CRW
Training Descent Table Manual.
APPENDIX 5: CANOPY HANDLING TRAINING DESCENT TABLES
Appendix 5A: Exercises for Certificate "A"
- Exercise 1. Slow flight and turns in a braked configuration
- Exercise 2. Static and dynamic stalls and stall recovery
- Exercise 3. "Maximum recovery" from a hook turn
- Exercise 4. Use of risers for turns
- Exercise 1. Full glide square approach with a landing within 25 metres
of the target centre
- Exercise 2. Braked short approach with a landing within 25 metres of the
- Exercise 3. Keyhole approach with a landing within 25 metres of the
Note: These exercises are defined and described in more detail in the APF
Training Operations Manual.
APF Sporting Code - CRW Specifics
AUSTRALIAN PARACHUTE FEDERATION SPORTING CODE
(Sections 13 through 18 of the APF Operational Regulations)
3rd September 2004
SECTION 13 CHAMPIONSHIP COMPETITIONS
- 13.1 General Conditions
- 13.2 Bids to Conduct Championships
- 13.3 Finance, Accountability
- 13.4 Pre-Competition Management
- 13.5 Provision of Facilities
- 13.6 Management of the Championships
- 13.7 Jumping at National Championships
- Annex 'A' - Financial Doctrine
SECTION 14 NATIONAL CHAMPIONSHIPS RULES
- 14.1 General Provisions
- 14.2 National Freefall Style and Accuracy Landing Championships, APF Water
Swoop, Canopy Piloting Championships
- 14.3 National Formation Skydiving Championships
- Appendix 1 - 10 way Speed Star rules
- Appendix 2 - Guide for air to air judging
- Appendix 3 - Spring/Autumn Skydiving Leagues
- 14.4 National Canopy Formation
- 14.5 National Para-Ski Championships
- 14.6 National Freestyle Skydiving, Skysurfing and Freeflying
- Addendum A - Compulsory Moves Freestyle, Skysurfing and Freeflying
- Addendum B - Basic Orientations and Body Positions, Freestyle and
- Addendum C - Freestyle Skydiving and Skysurfing difficulty
- 14A National Intermediate Freeflying Championships
- Addendum A - Compulsory Moves Intermediate Freeflying
- 14B National Intermediate Skysurfing Championships
- Addendum A - Compulsory Moves Intermediate Skysurfing
SECTION 15 JUDGES
- 15.1 APF National Judges
- 15.2 Judging at National Championships
- 15.3 Competition Judging Rules
- 15.4 International Judges
SECTION 16 NATIONAL RECORDS
- 16.1 General Conditions
- 16.2 Record Classification
- 16.3 Competition Records
- 16.4 Performance Records
- 16.5 Australian classifications
- 16.6 Application for Recognition
SECTION 17 AUSTRALIAN PARACHUTE TEAM
- 17.1 Authorisation
- 17.2 Team Selection
- 17.3 Conditions of Membership
- 17.4 Delegation Officials
- 17.5 - 17.6 Duties, Responsibilities and Reports
- 17.7 Organisation Prior to the Team's Departure
SECTION 18 AUSTRALIAN PARACHUTE TEAM FUND
- 18.1 Aim of the Fund
- 18.2 Management
- 18.3 Disbursement
The APF Sporting Code is updated annually, incorporating
changes to competition rules by the International Parachute Commission of the
FAI, and changes approved by the APF Board of Directors at the annual Board
meeting. These amendments generally result from recommendations by the
Competition and Judging Workgroup at the annual Technical Conference and
Competitors' Meetings held at National Championships.
SECTION 13 - CHAMPIONSHIP COMPETITIONS
13.4 Pre-Competition Management
13.4.1 The Organiser shall distribute a program of the Championships to all
APF member organisations and participating countries at least four months prior
to the event. The program shall contain details of the venues, dates, DZ
elevation, type of aircraft, exit speeds, fees, accommodation and other
information useful to the competitors.
13.5 Provision Of Facilities
13.5.2 In Formation Skydiving events, the Organiser shall arrange for
practice jumps to be available from the aircraft to be used in the Championships
to be on site at least two weeks prior to the start of competition.
13.6 Management Of The Championships
Aircraft And Flight Patterns
13.6.10 In Formation Skydiving and Canopy Formation
events, the aircraft conditions shall be equal for all teams. If more than one
configuration of aircraft is provided, each team shall make the same drawn
rounds from the same aircraft configuration.
13.7 Jumping At National Championships - Entries And Fees
Determination Of National Champions
13.7.19 Team Championships may be held provided there are at least three (3)
13.7.23 Provided there are at least eight (8) entrants (individuals or
teams), bronze medallions shall be awarded to those placing third in any
13.7.26 In events where the exit is controlled by the Judges using
ground-to-air radio, exit commands will be: RUN-IN, STANDBY, EXIT, and shall be
relayed to the competitors by the aircraft crew.
13.7.27 Once any jumper has left the aircraft after the RUN-IN command has
been given, the jump will be scored.
13.7.28 Once the STANDBY command has been given, the EXIT command must be
given. The time period between STANDBY and EXIT shall be approximately 10
13.7.29 The Judges may specify a time period within which teams or
individuals must exit the aircraft after the EXIT command has been given. Teams
or individuals which exit outside this time limit will not be granted a rejump
if they are not observed by the Judges.
SECTION 14 - NATIONAL CHAMPIONSHIPS RULES
14.1 GENERAL PROVISIONS
14.1.2 Training and Other Jumps
- (1) Training jumps from the aircraft to be used in the competition may be
commenced in the days prior to the start of the Championships. The Judges
and associated equipment shall be available on site to judge and score
training jumps at competitors' request.
- (2) Training jumps shall not be made once an event has commenced. In those
events where a draw is made to determine the test, the event shall be deemed
to have commenced when the draw is made. Teams or individuals which practice
or conspire to practice a drawn jump on or off the competition site shall be
disqualified from the event.
- (3) Training jumps made during the period prior to the competition will be
evaluated if requested, provided the programme or sequence has been
submitted to the Judges in advance.
- (4) Parachute descents, other than competition jumps, shall not be made
during the Championships unless authorised by the Meet Director and Chief
14.1.4 Order of Events
- (1) The Meet Director, in close co-operation with the Chief Judge, must
take maximum advantage of favourable meteorological conditions.
- (3) In order to ensure completion, or if the weather requires it, the Meet
Director may run two or more events simultaneously.
14.1.6 Calling the Jumpers Competitors must be called to the loading area
approximately 15 minutes prior to boarding the aircraft. A second 5 minute call
must also be made. Competitors who do not arrive in time to board the aircraft
must receive the maximum or minimum score (as appropriate) for that jump. Each
competitor is allowed a minimum time of 45 minutes from arriving at the
competition site to the first call for the next jump, except for Canopy
Formation events, Intermediate Formation Skydiving events, and rejumps.
For Canopy Formation competitors in the 4 way
rotations and 8 way speed events, the minimum allowed time from arriving at the
competition site to the first call for the next jump, except for rejumps and the
start, or restart of the event is thirty (30) minutes.
14.1.7 Cameraman and other persons or objects on board or in the air.
- (3) A rejump may be offered if the majority of the Judges conclude that a
team's performance has been adversely affected by an object in the air (e.g.
aircraft, canopies). The Judges' decision is no
ground for a protest.
14.1.9 Aircraft Jump Run
- (1) The speed of the aircraft during the jump run and exit shall be within
5 knots of the airspeed specified by the Organiser in the program for the
- (3) The competitor or team is responsible for ensuring the aircraft is at
the proper altitude and airspeed and is not obliged to exit on that jump run
if the altitude or airspeed are outside the limits specified above.
RULES SPECIFIC TO THE COMPETITION
14.1.16 Title:-"The xxth Australian Parachute Championships in
14.4 NATIONAL CANOPY FORMATION
14.4.1 APF Authority. The competition will be conducted under the authority
granted by the APF, according to the regulations of the APF Sporting Code and
14.4.2 Aims of the Championships.
- (a) To determine the Australian Champions of Canopy
- Four Way Sequential Event;
- Four Way Rotation Event;
- Eight Way Speed Formation Event.
- (b) To determine the Australian standings of the competing teams.
- (c) To establish Australian Canopy Formation
- (d) To promote and develop Canopy Formation
parachuting as a discipline.
- (e) To exchange ideas and strengthen friendly relations between the
skydivers, Judges and others.
- (f) To allow participants to share and exchange experience, knowledge and
- (g) To improve judging methods and practices.
14.4.3 Definitions of words and phrases used in these Rules.
14.4.4 The Events. The discipline has the following events:
- Four Way Sequential Event;
- Four Way Rotation Event;
- Eight Way Speed Formation Event.
Teams are composed as follows:
- A 4-way team in each event consisting of 6 members, any of who may be the
- An 8-way team consisting of 10 members, any of who may be the team
14.4.5 Objective of the events: The accumulated total of all rounds, in
accordance with 14.4.21 and 14.4.23 is used to determine the final rank of the
teams and declare the winner.
14.4.6 Performance requirement:
- 184.108.40.206 4-way sequential event: Each round
consists of a repeatable sequence drawn from the dive pools.
- 220.127.116.11 4-way rotation event: Each round
consists of successive 4-way plane/stack formations made by rotations.
Rotations must be made by the top competitor in the complete formation
dropping grips, flying to the bottom of the formation and again completing a
4-way plane/stack formation. The intermediate formation is the remaining
correctly completed 3-way plane/stack formation.
- 18.104.22.168 8-way speed formation event: Each
round consists of a single formation drawn from the dive pool. The formation
must be held for at least five seconds. The holding time may run over the
14.4.7 General Rules. Canopy Formation must not
be performed using a reserve parachute.
14.4.8 Meteorological Conditions.
- (a) When air turbulence is apparent, the Meet Director may decide to raise
the exit altitude. The Meet Director must inform all jumpers of the
decision. This decision is not open to protest.
- (b) Teams may refuse to jump in rain or turbulent conditions. The Meet
Director, Nationals Controller and the Chief Judge after consultation with
all Team captains, by unanimous decision may decide to continue the event.
If a team aborts a jump a second time for the same reason, that team shall
not jump that round and will be awarded the maximum or minimum score
whichever is worse.
- (c) Rain during a jump is not grounds for protest.
14.4.9 Break off. All form of canopy formation
jumping must cease by 750 metres (~ 2500 feet). The Nationals Controller has the
authority to disqualify a team that breaks this rule, for that round or the
14.4.10 Miscellaneous Equipment. Competitors must carry the following
- (a) Every team member must carry a hook-knife for emergency use;
- (b) Altimeter.
14.4.11 The Draw. The draw of the sequences and the jump order will be
supervised by the Chief Judge and teams will be given not less than two hours
knowledge of the results of the draw before the competition starts.
14.4.12 Training Jumps. Training jumps may be made only before the draw is
made. If time allows, these jumps may be assessed by the Judges and the score
may be published.
14.4.13 Order of jumping. The jump order will be used for each round until
there is a break in jumping of more than 30 minutes at the end of a round (rejumps
ignored). The jump order for the next rounds will be in the reverse order of
ranking (the order in which tied teams jump will be determined by their original
draw). Reverse order of ranking must be used for the semi-final and final
14.4.14 Exit Procedure.
- (a) There is no limitation on the exit other than those imposed by the
Chief Pilot for safety reasons. The pilot must maintain the altitude and
direction until the aircraft is well clear of the jumpers.
- (b) Teams will be responsible for their own exits once the aircraft has
commenced jump run.
- (c) The exit of the first team member must be clearly shown on the team's
- (d) The pilot chute must not be withdrawn from the equipment until the
competitor is clear of the aircraft.
- (a) Problems with a team's equipment shall not be grounds for rejump.
- (b) Where formations, inters or total separations are not visually
judgeable due to meteorological conditions, or factors relating to the video
equipment, the video evidence may be considered insufficient for judging
purposes. In this case the Video Review Panel will assess the conditions and
circumstances surrounding that occurrence and may award a rejump. Should the
Video Review Panel determine that there has been an intentional abuse of the
rules by the team, or by the videographer on behalf of the team, no rejump
will be granted and they will receive zero points or maximum time for that
- (c) Contact or other interference between a team and its videographer are
not reasons for the team to request a rejump.
- (a) All formations and intermediate requirements must be completed and
recorded in such a manner that the Judges may determine that the required
performance has been achieved. Provision of video evidence for judging
purposes is the responsibility of the team.
- (b) If a competitor or team is disqualified for a jump, they will receive
zero points or the maximum time for that jump.
RULES SPECIFIC TO THE EVENTS
14.4.17 4-Way Sequential Event
- (a) Exit altitude is 2,500 metres (~8,200 feet) AGL with a working time of
- (b) The draw of the sequences: Each block sequence or random will be drawn
only once for each competition. All rounds shall consist of four or five
scoring formations, whichever number is reached first.
- (c) Scoring: Teams will be awarded one point for the first formation and
each subsequent formation or formations preceded by an intermediate
correctly completed within the working time. Teams will not be awarded
points for incorrect formations. There will be no penalty. Omissions:
Omission of a formation will stop the scoring at that formation. The next
formation to score is the second correctly completed formation following the
last omission. Scoring may also continue if the team goes back to correctly
complete the omitted formation, incorrect formation or formation prior to
the incorrect intermediate requirement. An attempt to complete a formation,
although incorrect or incomplete, demonstrated by at least 3 canopies
connected with grips, and in the formation required by the drawn sequence,
will be judged as an incorrect formation, not as an omission.
- (d) Each formation and intermediate requirement must be performed in
accordance with the illustrations in the drawn sequence. Where there is no
intermediate requirement between formations, there must be complete
separation of all canopies. Mirror images are acceptable for a complete
blocks and random formations. Formations need not be symmetrical. At the end
of a sequence there must be complete separation before restarting the
sequence as drawn.
14.4.18 4-Way Rotation Event
- (a) Exit altitude is 2,150 metres (~7,000 feet) with a working time of 90
- (b) The Working Time and Scoring begins with the first 4-way plane/stack
formation whether correct or not, or 30 seconds after the exit of the first
team member, excluding the team's videographer, whichever is first. One
point is scored for every correctly completed 4-way plane/stack formation
within the working time, according to the performance requirement.
14.4.19 8-Way Speed Event
- (a) Exit altitude shall be 1,850 metres (~6,000 feet) AGL with a working
time of 120 seconds.
- (b) Each round consists of a single formation as shown in the dive pool. A
draw will be made for the first four rounds. The formations will be replaced
to enable the draw for the remaining rounds.
- (c) Scoring; The score for the jump shall be the time in seconds and
hundredths of seconds to complete a correct 8-Way formation, provided the
formation is held for five seconds. If the formation separates within
working time, the team may rebuild the formation. The holding time may run
over the working time. The maximum score for any round shall be 120 seconds.
14.4.20 Air to Air Video Recording
- (a) Each team shall provide the video evidence required to judge each
round. Only one of the team's members may jump on each jump as a
- (b) Video equipment shall consist of the complete video system or systems
used to record the video evidence of the team's performance, including
camera(s), video tape(s), tape recorder(s) and battery(ies).
- (c) A Video Controller will be appointed by the Chief Judge prior to the
start of the Judges' Conference. The Video Controller may inspect a team's
video equipment to verify that it meets the competition requirements.
Inspections may be made at any time during the competition which does not
interfere with a team's performance, as determined by the Event Judge. If
any video equipment does not meet the requirements determined by the Video
Controller, this equipment will be deemed to be unuseable for the
- (d) The videographer must deliver the video equipment to the Chief Judge
or their designee as soon as possible after each jump is completed. Only one
video tape will be dubbed and judged. Secondary video evidence may only be
used where there is insufficient video evidence due to meterological or
- (e) A Video Review Panel will be established consisting of the Chief
Judge, President of the Jury and Nationals Controller. Decisions rendered by
the Video Review Panel shall be final and not subject to protest or review
by the Jury. If the Video Review Panel determines that the video equipment
has been deliberately tampered with, the team will receive no score for all
rounds involving this tampering.
14.4.21 Judging Rules
22.214.171.124 Observing the Performance
- (i) Each performance must be evaluated by a panel of three Judges. At a
National Championship, the judging panel should have a majority of Judges
who are Nationals-endorsed for Canopy Formation.
- (ii) The Judges will watch each performance once at normal speed. At the
request of any working Judge, a second viewing at normal speed may be made.
A third viewing at normal speed may only occur where authorised by the Event
- (iii) The Judges may use an electronic scoring system to record their
evaluation of the performance if available.
- (iv) The Judges may correct their evaluation record after the jump has
been judged. At the end of working time, freeze frame of the image must be
- (v) The Judges shall start the timing when the first team member
(excluding the team's videographer) leaves the aircraft.
- (vi) If the Judges use score sheets to record their evaluation, they will
operate their own chronometer and use the signs below to record their
assessment. The score sheets of all Judges must be collected immediately
after the Judges have scored the jump for checking by the Event Judge and
Chief Judge. Freeze frame of the video image need not be used.
- √ - Correct scoring formation
- 0 - Penalty
- NJ - Formations, inters or total separations not visually
- NV - Insufficient video evidence
- // - End of working time
- (vii) The determination of time awarded in the 8-way event: If 3 scores
fall within a 3 seconds spread, the score for that jump is the average of
these. If only 2 scores fall within a 3 seconds spread, the score for that
jump is the average of the two with the third score discarded. If no scores
fall within a 3 second spread, then the Event Judge shall consult with the
judging panel to determine whether there is an actual time of completion for
the formation. In this case, additional viewings may be used.
14.4.22 Programme of events
- (a) The Australian Canopy Formation
Championships comprises the following events:
- 4-Way Sequential Event 8 rounds;
- 4-Way Rotation Event. 8 rounds;
- 8-Way Speed Event 8 rounds;
- (b) The 7th round of each event shall be the Semi-Final Round in which
teams holding the first ten placings shall participate.
- (c) The 8th round of each event shall be the the Final Round in which
teams holding the first six placings shall participate.
- (d) A minimum of 1 round must be completed to establish Australian
Champions in any event.
14.4.23 Determination of Australian Champions. The Australian Champions are
- a) Where only one round is completed, have the best score for that one
- b) Where more than one round is completed, have the best score after
discarding their worst performance in the completed rounds calculated as
- 4-WAY EVENTS:
- Have the highest number of formations in the remaining completed
- If two or more teams have an equal number of formations, the first
three places will be decided by the highest number of points in any
completed round for each team.
- If there is still a tie, the the team with the fastest time in
those rounds with the highest points wins the tied place.
- 8-WAY SPEED FORMATION:
- Has the most 8-ways in the remaining completed rounds.
- If two or more teams have an equal number of 8-ways, the winner is
that team with the lowest total time for these rounds.
- If there is still a tie, the first three places will be decided by
the fastest times for any completed round.
14.4.24 Dive pool. :Formation diagrams Definitions used in the formation
diagrams are as follows:
- Block sequence numbers = 1 2 3 4
- Random formation letters = A B C D
- Intermediate requirement = INTER
SECTION 15 - JUDGES
15.1 APF Judges
15.1.2 APF Judge Ratings shall be endorsed to indicate in which categories
the Judge is qualified. Categories are:
Where a Nationals-endorsed APF Judge is awarded an FAI Parachuting Judge
rating, the APF rating should be endorsed to indicate in which categories the
FAI rating is held.
15.1.6 APF Judge Standard. The standard of judging required to obtain or
retain an APF Judge rating shall be:
- (c) Formation Skydiving and Canopy Formation.
Obtain a score for 95% of the jumps evaluated while active as an Formation
Skydiving and/or Canopy Formation Judge. These
scores must meet the following assessment standard:
- At least 70% of the scoring of formations and transitions must agree
with the official score.
- At least 70% of the working time evaluations must agree with the
- At least 70% of the scoring of infringements must agree with the
official score. (Note: allowance is to be made for "judgement"
126.96.36.199 Nationals-endorsement standard. The standard of judging required to
obtain or retain a Nationals-endorsement for any category shall be:
- (c) Formation Skydiving and Canopy Formation
Obtain a score for 95% of the jumps evaluated while active as an Formation
Skydiving and/or Canopy Formation Judge. These
scores must meet the following assessment standard:
- At least 75% of the scoring of formations and transitions must agree
with the official score.
- At least 75% of the working time evaluations must agree with the
- At least 75% of the scoring of infringements must agree with the
official score. (Note: allowance is to be made for "judgement"
SECTION 16 - NATIONAL RECORDS
16.3 Competition Records
16.3.2 Joint Record holders Joint Record holders in Freefall Style, Formation
Skydiving, Canopy Formation and Artistic
- (1) If two or more competitors or teams achieve the same record
performance during the same round and thereby break an existing record, the
new record shall be registered in the names of all the competitors or teams
- (2) If a competitor or team achieves a performance during a later round in
the same event, which is equal to a new record performance achieved during
an earlier round in that event, no recognition will be given to that
performance as being a record performance.
16.3.6 Canopy Formation records
- (a) 4-Way Rotation. The record performance
for a 4-way rotation is the score in one round in accordance with the APF
- (b) Longest Sequence. The record performance
for the longest sequence is the score in one round in accordance with the
APF Sporting Code.
- (c) 8-Way Speed Formation. The record
performance for an 8-way speed formation is the time in which eight persons
form a complete connected eight canopy formation
in accordance with the APF Sporting Code.
16.4 Performance Records
16.4.3 Largest Formation records
- (1) The record performance for the largest formation is the number of
persons in one formation. One written plan describing the formation to be
attempted and the personnel involved must be submitted in advance to the
Judges. The formation must be completed as described with all named
personnel in the formation
- (2) The exit procedure for the largest formation is the same as for the
longest sequence except that more than one aircraft may be used.
- (3) If two or more teams achieve an identical record performance on the
same calendar day and thereby break an existing record, the new record shall
be registered in the name of all the individuals or teams involved.
16.5 Record Classification
16.5.1 Australian competition and performance records shall have the
following main classifications.
- Highest Four Way Canopy Formation
Score.................. Class K
- Fastest Eight Way Canopy Formation.............................
- Largest Canopy Formation
............................................... Class M
16.5.3 All classifications may be further classified as:
- (a) Women.
- (b) Men
- (c) Open
16.5.4 All classifications may be further classified as:
16.5.5 Night shall be defined as the time between 1 hour after official
sunset and 1 hour before official sunrise.
16.5.6 Classification K shall be further classified as:
- (a) Rotations
- (b) Sequential
SECTION 17 - AUSTRALIAN PARACHUTE TEAM
17.2 Australian Parachute Team Selection
17.2.1 Eligibility for automatic selection in Formation Skydiving and Canopy
Formation events is restricted to teams placing 1st or 2nd at the most
recent National Championships. Inclusion of competitors below these levels shall
be at the discretion of the APF Board.
17.2.7 The composition of a Formation Skydiving or Canopy
Formation team may be changed after selection provided at least 60% of
the original team members remain. For teams in Skysurfing and Freestyle evnts,
only the Videographer may change. For the purpose of this regulation, the
original team shall be those parachutists shown in the registration records of
the most recent APF National Championships as members of the team.