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[ FAI SC General ] [ FAI SC Sec5 Para - CRW ] [ Canopy Formation Rules 2005 ]

    This page highlights the sections in the Fédération Aéronautique Internationale Sporting Code (SC) that are directly related or of particular interest to CRW (Canopy Formation). All sections related to parachuting in general have been excluded. The complete Canopy Formation competition rules have also been included.

    I have left the complete contents section intact but highlighted the particular sections relevant to CRW in blue. The SC General Section is dated 1st April 2004. The SC Section 5 (Class G, Parachuting) is dated 1st May 2005.

    Click here to download complete rules & regulations.

Note: Wording in FAI documentation: The use of "shall" and "must" implies that the aspect concerned is mandatory; the use of "should" implies a non-mandatory recommendation; "may" indicates what is permitted and "will" indicates what is going to happen. Words of masculine gender should be taken as including the feminine gender unless the context indicates otherwise. Italics are used for explanatory notes.


FAI Sporting Code - General - Parachuting Specifics

FEDERATION AERONAUTIQUE INTERNATIONALE

SPORTING CODE - GENERAL SECTION

2004 EDITION - Effective date: 1 April 2004

Secretariat of FAI:

Fédération Aéronautique Internationale (FAI)
Avenue Mon-Repos 24, CH-1005 LAUSANNE, Switzerland
Tel: +41 21 345 1070 Fax: +41 21 345 1077 Email: sec@fai.org Web: www.fai.org

Copyright 2004. All rights reserved. Copyright in this document is owned by the Fédération Aéronautique Internationale (FAI). Any person acting on behalf of the FAI or one of its Members is hereby authorized to copy, print, and distribute this document, subject to the following conditions:

  1. The document may be used for information only and may not be exploited for commercial purposes.

  2. Any copy of this document or portion thereof must include this copyright notice.

Note that any product, process or technology described in the document may be the subject of other Intellectual Property rights reserved by the Fédération Aéronautique Internationale or other entities and is not licensed hereunder.

FAI Sporting Code General Section 2004 - TABLE OF CONTENTS

Amendment Record                i - ii

Contents List                         iii - vi

Introduction                          vii

Chapter 1 - PRINCIPLES & AUTHORITY OF FAI

1.1 Principles

1.2 Sporting Code

1.3 Sporting Authority

1.3.1 National Airsport Control (NAC)

1.3.2 Delegation

1.4 FAI International Air Sport Commissions (Table)

Chapter 2 - CLASSIFICATIONS AND DEFINITIONS

2.1 Classifications

2.2 Definitions

2.2.1 General Definitions

2.2.1.1 Class A, Balloons

2.2.1.2 Class B, Airships

2.2.1.3 Class C, Aeroplanes, Solar- and Electric-Powered aerodynes (AL 2)

2.2.1.4 Class D, Gliders & Motor Gliders

2.2.1.5 Class E, Rotorcraft

2.2.1.6 Class F, Model Aircraft (AL7)

2.2.1.7 Class G, Parachutes

2.2.1.8 Class H, Vertical Take-off and Landing Aircraft

2.2.1.9 Class I, Human Powered Aircraft

2.2.1.10 Class K, Spacecraft

2.2.1.11 Class M, Tilt Wing/Engine Aircraft

2.2.1.12 Class N, STOL Aircraft

2.2.1.13 Class O, Hang Gliders

2.2.1.14 Class P, Aero Spacecraft

2.2.1.15 Class R, Microlights

2.2.1.16 Class S, Space Models

2.2.1.17 Class U, Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) (AL5)

2.3 Flight Definitions

Chapter 3 - SPORTING EVENTS

3.1 Classification of Events

3.1.1 National Sporting Event

3.1.2 National Championship

3.1.3 International Sporting Event

3.1.4 Open National Championship

3.1.5 Continental Regional Championship

3.1.6 World Championship

3.1.7 World Air Games

3.2 Participants

3.2.1 Entrant

3.2.2 Competitor

3.2.3 Team

3.2.4 Champion

3.3 Recognition of Sporting Events

3.4 Registration of International Sporting Events

3.5 Sporting Events listed in the FAI Sporting Calendar

3.5.1 First Category Events

3.5.2 Second Category Events

3.5.3 Event Qualification Criteria

3.5.3.1 First Category Events

3.5.3.2 Second Category Events

3.5.4 Definition of Continental Regions

3.5.5 Other Regional Groupings

3.5.6 Frequency and Location of Events

3.5.7 Co-ordination

3.6 Participation

3.7 Identity and Representation Rights

3.8 Offers to Host FAI Sporting Events

3.8.1 Bids

3.8.1.1 Lead Time

3.8.1.2 Content

3.8.1.3 Admission into a Country

3.9 General Rules for FAI Sporting Events

3.9.1 Rules for First Category Events

3.9.2 Rules for Second Category Events

3.9.3 FAI Authority

3.9.4 Courtesy Invitations

3.9.5 Language

3.9.6 Insurance

3.10 Entries

3.11 Responsibility of the Entrant

3.11.1 Acceptance of Sporting Code, Rules and Regulations

3.11.2 Doping, Alcohol, Illness & Injury

3.12 Acceptance of Entries

3.13 Change of Entries

3.14 Rejection of Entries

3.15 Return of Entry Fees

3.16 Results and Prizegiving

3.16.1 Jury Approval

3.16.2 Notification of Results

3.16.3 Prizegiving

Chapter 4 - CONTROL OF SPORTING EVENTS

4.1 NAC Responsibility

4.1.1 Control and Certification

4.1.2 Verification

4.2 Official Controlling Performances

4.2.1 Official Observers

4.2.2 Eligibility

4.2.3 Presence

4.2.4 Temporary Status

4.2.5 Violation of Duty

4.2.6 Records during FAI Sporting Events

4.3 Officials in First Category International Sporting Events

4.3.1 International Officials

4.3.2 The International Jury (4.3.2.5) (4.3.2.6.4)

4.3.3 FAI Judges

4.3.4 Operational Officials

4.3.4.1 The Event Director

4.3.4.2 Stewards

4.3.4.3 Public Relations Officer (PRO)

4.4 Officials in 2nd Category International Sporting Events

4.5. Officials in National Sporting Events

Chapter 5 - COMPLAINTS, PENALTIES, DISQUALIFICATIONS, PROTESTS

5.1 Complaints

5.2 Penalties and Disqualifications

5.2.1 Director's Powers

5.2.2 Severity of Penalties

5.2.2.1 Technical Infringements

5.2.2.2 Serious Infringements

5.2.2.3 Unsporting Behaviour

5.2.3 Publication

5.3 Surrender of Sporting Licence

5.4 Protests

5.5 Treatment of Protests

5.6 Appeals

Chapter 6 - WORLD RECORDS

6.1 Definition of World Record

6.2 Absolute Records

6.3 Holders of Records (AL 2)

6.4 Administration of Records

6.5 Responsibility for Authorisations

6.6 Simultaneous Records

6.7 Multiple Records

6.8 Certification

6.9 Verification

6.10 Notification

 Chapter 7 - MEASUREMENT REQUIREMENTS

7.1 FAI Units of Measurement

7.2 Performance Increase Requirements

7.3 Quality of Measurements

7.3.1 Specification of Measuring Methods

7.3.1.1 Great Circle Distances

7.3.1.2 Time and Speed

7.3.1.3 Mass

7.3.1.4 Timing of Record Attempt

7.3.1.5 Altitude

7.3.1.6 Equipment Limitations

7.3.1.7 Evidence from Photography and Navigation Aids

7.4 Accuracy of Measurement

Chapter 8 - FAI LICENCES

8.1 Sporting Licence

8.1.1 Statutory Rights

8.1.2 Holder's Responsibility

8.1.3 Issue of Sporting Licences

8.1.3.1 Identification

8.1.3.6 Rights of representation

8.1.4 Sporting Licence Form

8.1.5 Validity of Sporting Licences

8.1.6 Withdrawal of Sporting Licence

8.1.7 Sample Form of Sporting Licence

8.1.8 Other forms of Sporting Licence

8.2 Certificates of Proficiency

Chapter 9 - APPEALS TO THE FAI

9.1 Right of Appeal

9.2 Notice of Appeal

9.3 Time Limit

9.4 Treatment of Appeals

9.4.1 Hearing

9.4.2 Finality of Decision

9.5 Publication of Decision

Chapter 10 - AMENDMENTS

 ANNEX A: Preferred terminology for Flight Definitions

GLOSSARY

Numerical                                        Glossary page 1

Other Documents Available                (AL 2)

Alphabetical                                      Glossary pages 1 - 4


CHAPTER 1 PRINCIPLES AND AUTHORITY OF FAI

1.1 PRINCIPLES. 

    The FAI is the sole international body in control of air sports and aeronautic and astronautic records in the interests of good sportsmanship and fair competition. The statutes of FAI specify the Sporting Code as the regulatory system by which the FAI administers and controls all air sport activities, including records, sporting badges and proficiency certificates within these activities.

1.2 SPORTING CODE

1.2.1 The Sporting Code consists of the General Section and the specialised sections.

1.2.2 The General Section contains the rules and regulations common to all FAI activities. The responsibility for the development and maintenance of the General Section rests with the FAI Air Sport General Commission (see CASI).

1.2.3 Each specialised section contains rules and regulations that apply to a specific FAI recognised activity. The responsibility for the development and maintenance of each specialised section rests with the appropriate FAI Air Sport Commission.

1.4 FAI INTERNATIONAL AIR SPORT COMMISSIONS.

    The FAI Statutes specify the areas of responsibility of each FAI Air Sport Commission. The following table is provided as a guide; commission initials are explained in the Glossary:

FAI COMMISSION International Parachuting Commission
Activity Initials IPC
Sporting Code Section 5
Class Letter G
Description Parachutes

CHAPTER 2 CLASSIFICATIONS AND DEFINITIONS

2.2 DEFINITIONS.

    In defining responsibilities of the FAI Air Sport Commissions and the classifications above and in para 1.4, the following definitions apply. More detailed definitions and sub-classifications may be contained in the specialised sections of the Sporting Code.

2.2.1 GENERAL DEFINITIONS

AIRCRAFT: A vehicle that can be sustained in the atmosphere by forces exerted on it by the air.

2.2.1.7 Class G: PARACHUTE - A collapsible device designed to counteract gravity using forces exerted upon it by the air.

CHAPTER 3 SPORTING EVENTS

3.1 CLASSIFICATION OF EVENTS.

    A Sporting Event is any air sport event or other defined contest organised by or on behalf of an NAC or FAI in compliance with the Sporting Code.

3.1.1 NATIONAL SPORTING EVENT. A sporting event open to participants of the organising NAC.

3.1.2 NATIONAL CHAMPIONSHIP. A national sporting event in which the winner is awarded the title of National Champion.

3.1.3 INTERNATIONAL SPORTING EVENT. A sporting event in which entry is open to participants from more than one NAC.

3.1.4 OPEN NATIONAL CHAMPIONSHIP. A national championship open for participation by other NACs, at the invitation of the organising NAC.

3.1.5 REGIONAL CHAMPIONSHIPS.

3.1.5.1 Continental Championship. An international sporting event open to participants from all NACs within a specific continental region defined in the Sporting Code (see para 3.5.4) and, in case of vacancies, to participants from other invited non-eligible NAC's.

3.1.5.2. Championships for Other Regional Groupings. As above but for other regional groupings of countries not included in 3.5.4 but approved by the Air Sport General Commission (CASI) for the specific championship concerned. This includes groupings within continents or trans-continental groupings.

3.1.6 WORLD CHAMPIONSHIP. An international sporting event open to participants from all NAC's, and in which the winner is awarded the title of World Champion.

3.1.7 WORLD AIR GAMES. An international sporting event involving several FAI air sports at the same time and open to participants from NAC's.

3.2 PARTICIPANTS

3.2.2 COMPETITOR. A person entered and competing in a sporting event.

3.2.3 TEAM. A group of one or more competitors, the combined performance of which is counted for the result.

3.2.3.1. National team. A group of one or more competitors representing one NAC.

3.2.3.2 International team. A group of more than one competitor representing more than one NAC or FAI, as defined in 3.2.1.

3.2.3.3 FAI team. A group of one or more FAI competitors. 3.2.4 CHAMPION. The title conferred upon the winner of a World, Regional or National Championship. The winner of a World Air Games competition will be awarded the title World Air Games Champion for the class concerned.

3.5 SPORTING EVENTS LISTED IN THE FAI SPORTING CALENDAR

3.5.1 FIRST CATEGORY EVENTS

3.5.1.1 World Air Games, as approved by the General Conference.

3.5.1.2 World and Continental Regional Championships, as approved by the FAI Air Sport Commissions concerned and confirmed by the Executive Board as part of their approval of the FAI Sporting Calendar (Statute 4.2.2.11 refers). (AL6)

3.5.1.3 International Sporting Events approved by the FAI Air Sport Commissions concerned.

3.5.2 SECOND CATEGORY EVENTS - Other international sporting events organised by or under the authorization of NACs.

3.5.3 EVENT QUALIFICATION CRITERIA

3.5.3.1 First category events. A minimum of 4 NACs shall have entered by the end of the official registration period, as defined in the local Regulations, with entry fees paid. If there are less than 4, the event may take place but the Air Sport Commission concerned may decide that the title of Champion may not be awarded.

3.5.3.2 Second category events. The minimum number of entries shall be laid down in the rules for the event.

3.5.6 FREQUENCY AND LOCATION OF EVENTS. Each FAI Air Sport Commission shall determine the frequency and location of its events in accordance with the following principles:

3.5.6.1 World Air Games shall be held at least 3 years apart but as a general rule at 5 year intervals.

3.5.6.2 World and Continental Championships should be held approximately every two years in any discipline or class.

3.5.6.3 As far as possible World and Continental Championships should be held in alternate calendar years.

Chapter 5 COMPLAINTS, PENALTIES, DISQUALIFICATIONS AND PROTESTS

5.2 PENALTIES AND DISQUALIFICATIONS

5.2.1 The Director of a Sporting Event may penalise a competitor as described in the rules for the event. These penalties may be in the form of an operational disadvantage, deduction of points, alteration of placing order, disqualification, or any other penalty designated by the Air Sport Commission concerned.

5.2.2 SEVERITY OF PENALTIES. The severity of the penalties which may be imposed may range from a minimum loss of points to disqualification indicated below, as appropriate to the offence.

5.2.2.1 Technical Infringements. Technical infringements of rules or failure to comply with requirements caused by mistake or inadvertence where no advantage has accrued or could have accrued to the competitor concerned should, as a guide, carry penalties leading to a reduction of not less than 2% of the best score or maximum available score for the task.

5.2.2.2 Serious Infringements. Serious infringements, including dangerous or hazardous actions or repetitions of lesser infringements should, as a guide, carry minimum penalties leading to a reduction of not less than 5% of the best score or maximum score for the task.

5.2.2.3 Unsporting Behaviour. Cheating or unsporting behaviour, including deliberate attempts to deceive or mislead officials, wilful interference with other competitors, falsification of documents, use of forbidden equipment or prohibited drugs, violations of airspace, or repeated serious infringements of rules should, as a guide, result in disqualification from the sporting event.

Chapter 6 WORLD RECORDS

6.1 DEFINITION OF WORLD RECORD.

    A World Record is the best performance certified by the FAI and established in a FAI Class, Sub-class, Category or Group as specified in the Sporting Code GS and/or Specialised Section. Classes are listed in paras 1.4 and 2.1. Sub-classes, Categories and Groups shall be defined in Specialised sections; examples include:

Sub classes : e.g. sub-class AX, hot air Balloons; MG, Motor Gliders; 

Categories : e.g. general, feminine, size, solo, multi-seat, etc; 

Groups : e.g. group 1, piston engine, etc.

6.1.1 Types of records (e.g. altitude, altitude with payload, distance and/or speed over different courses) should be specified for each FAI Class in the appropriate section of the Sporting Code.

6.1.2 To be eligible as a World Record, the performance must have been recognised as a National record by the NAC concerned, except for international team performances in Class G (Parachutes - Largest Formation Record), and for all performances in Class K (Spacecraft) and ClassP (Aerospacecraft). In any case the FAI rules have to be fulfilled.

6.6 SIMULTANEOUS RECORDS.

    On any date that a record is broken by more than one pilot, the best performance only will be awarded the new record, except that, if two or more aircraft flying in a group and in the same conditions achieve exactly the same performance and simultaneously beat a record, the performance may be registered as a record in the joint names of the pilots or members of that group.

6.8 CERTIFICATION OF WORLD RECORDS

6.8.3 The claim statement shall include, as applicable :

  • classification (class, subclass, etc.) of the record being claimed ;
  • its title and description, including record figures ;
  • place (course) and date of the attempt ;
  • name, gender and citizenship of the competitor(s) ;
  • number and expiry date of the competitor's sporting licence and the name of the issuing NAC ;
  • type of aircraft and registration or identification marks ;
  • type of engine(s) or power source, power and identification number(s) ;
  • name of the NAC responsible for the control of the record attempt ;
  • confirmation and date of certification as a National record.

Chapter 7 MEASUREMENT REQUIREMENTS

7.1 FAI UNITS OF MEASUREMENT

Distances On and Above the Earth's Surface:

  • Long Distances (over 10 Km) - Kilometre (km).
  • Short distances (less than 10 Km) - Metre (m).
  • Very short distances - Centimetres (cm).
  • Altitude - Metre (m).
  • Time - Hours (hr), Minutes (min), Seconds (sec). 

7.3 QUALITY OF MEASUREMENTS

7.3.1 SPECIFICATION OF MEASURING AND EVIDENCE GATHERING METHODS.

    The methods and equipment for measuring and recording of Distance, Time, Speed, Altitude, Mass or other specific parameters, as well as equipment technical standards, shall be determined by each FAI Air Sport Commission and specified in the appropriate section of the Sporting Code. In the case of record flights, the conformity of the specific measuring and recording instruments and equipment used shall be checked by the official observer to be of the same type as approved by the respective FAI Air Sport Commissions. The following requirements shall be applied :

7.3.1.2 Time and speed. Measurement of Time and Speed may be by clocks or other time recording equipment as determined by the FAI Air Sport Commission concerned.

7.3.1.4 Timing of record attempts. In the case of record attempts, clocks and other time recording equipment shall be checked over a period of 3 hours against official time signals both immediately before and after the attempt with any error found taken into account in the calculations.

7.3.1.7 Evidence from photographic sources or from data from navigation aids. Evidence from photographic sources or from data recorded in flight from navigational aids may be used to verify flight evidence as specified in the Specialised Sections, including any requirements for sealing of equipments.

CHAPTER 8 FAI LICENCES

8.1 SPORTING LICENCE

8.1.2 HOLDER'S RESPONSIBILITY. The holder shall sign his sporting licence. In doing so he acknowledges that he knows and understands the FAI Sporting Code and commits himself to abide by it. Only holders of a valid FAI Sporting Licence as defined in 8.1.5 are permitted to participate in FAI sporting events and record attempts.

8.1.3.1 Identification

8.1.3.2 A person shall not at the same time hold a Sporting Licence issued by more than one NAC. An individual who under the provisions of 8.1.3.6 elects to transfer from one NAC to another, may be issued a sporting licence by his new NAC only after notification to his former NAC and after withdrawal of any valid sporting licence issued by that former NAC.

8.1.3.6 Rights of representation

8.1.3.6.1 A citizen of a country may be issued with a FAI Sporting Licence to represent the NAC of that country, except that if a person has multiple nationality, he (or she) shall not have represented a different NAC in any FAI airsport activities during the three years preceding the event concerned.

8.1.3.6.2 A resident of a country who is not a citizen of that country may be issued a sporting licence to represent the NAC of his country of residence:

a) In Second Category international sporting events;

b) In First Category events, provided he has been a resident of that country during the three years preceding the event concerned, and he did not represent a different NAC in any FAI Airsport Activities during that period.

ANNEX A TO THE GENERAL SECTION OF THE FAI SPORTING CODE

FAI PREFERRED TERMINOLOGY FOR FLIGHT DEFINITIONS Flight Definitions.

A3 Free Fall. The passage through the air of a person between release or departure from an aircraft and the use of a parachute or other means of substantially modifying the fall rate.

A4 Flight Performance. The achievement attained during free flight or free fall, the evidence for which is put forward for validation of the achievement to an NAC or by FAI, to Sporting Code criteria.

A5 Uncompleted Flight. A flight is deemed to be uncompleted if; EITHER,

An accident occurs during the flight resulting in the death of any member of the crew within 48 hours or, except for parachuting events, any person leaves the aircraft during the flight ; OR,

Any part of the aircraft or its equipment is shed or jettisoned other than permitted jettisonable equipment, ballast or fuel.

A8 Start of a Flight Performance

A8.1 Start point. The start of the FAI Flight Performance for measurement purposes. Depending on the activity and type of flight concerned, the start point may be one of the following :

f. The point where a parachutist exits (known as the Exit Point); OR,

A8.2 Start time. The time at the start point.

A8.2.1 Exit Time. In parachuting, the time at the exit point.

A8.3 Start altitude. The altitude at the start point.

A8.3.1 Exit Altitude. In parachuting, the altitude at the exit point.


FAI Sporting Code - Section 5 - Class G - Parachuting - CRW Specifics

Section 5 - Parachuting CLASS G - Parachuting

2005 Edition Effective 1st May 2005

NOTE: The General Section and Section 5 combined make up the Complete Sporting Code for Parachuting

FEDERATION AERONAUTIQUE INTERNATIONALE

Avenue Mon-Repos 24 - CH-1005 LAUSANNE - Switzerland

Copyright 2005 All rights reserved. Copyright in this document is owned by the Fédération Aéronautique Internationale (FAI). Any person acting on behalf of the FAI or one of its Members is hereby authorized to copy, print, and distribute this document, subject to the following conditions:

  • 1. The document may be used for information only and may not be exploited for commercial purposes.
  • 2. Any copy of this document or portion thereof must include this copyright notice.

Note that any product, process or technology described in the document may be the subject of other Intellectual Property rights reserved by the Fédération Aéronautique Internationale or other entities and is not licensed hereunder.

CONTENTS 

Page Chapter 1 : General Regulations

1.1 Validity, Definitions and Abbreviations

1.2 Personal Requirements

1.3 General Safety Conditions

Chapter 2 : Certificates of Proficiency

2.1 General Conditions

2.2 Certificate Category Requirements

2.3 Documentation

2.4 Minimum Requirements

Chapter 3 : World Records - Class G (Parachuting)

3.1 General Provisions

3.2 Competition Records

3.3 Performance Records

Chapter 4 : Organisation of Competitions

4.1 General Provisions

4.2 Competition Rules

4.3 Technical Arrangements, Accommodation

4.4 Participation

4.5 Competition Management

4.6 Judges

4.7 Jury

4.8 Safety

4.9 Conclusion

Chapter 5 : General Competition Rules

5.1 General Provisions

5.2 Execution of Jumps

5.3 Protests

5.4 Penalties

Chapter 6 : FAI Judges 25

6.1 Categories

6.2 List of FAI Judges

6.3 Requirements for FAI Parachuting Judge Ratings (All Categories)

6.4 Initial Qualification

6.5 Annual Renewal

6.6 Qualifications to Judge at First Category Events

6.7 IPC Control

6.8 Criteria for Evaluation of Judges

6.9 Duties of Judges

6.10 Judges Meetings

6.11 Provision of Information

FAI SPORTING CODE - SECTION 5 Page ii

ANNEXES (sent upon request):

ANNEX A: Changes incorporated to the 2004 edition of Section 5 COMPETITION RULES FOR SPECIFIC EVENTS


CHAPTER 1: GENERAL REGULATIONS

1.1 VALIDITY, DEFINITIONS AND ABBREVIATIONS

1.1.1 Principles, authority

(1) In accordance with the General Section of the Sporting Code, this Section, together with any amendments and the Competition Rules, contains the Regulations that apply to all sport parachuting activity.

(3) Only events that are held in accordance with these rules are recognised by the FAI. NACs should apply these rules to National Championships and other National Parachuting Competitions. For national competitions, this Section of the Sporting Code may need modification to conform to local Civil Aviation regulations and to allow for novice and other competitions.

(4) The disciplines of Sport Parachuting are: ? Canopy Formation The Rules for each parachuting discipline are laid down in Competition Rules, which are re-issued each year.

(5) Changes to the Sporting Code and Competition Rules are valid from the 1st of May following the IPC Meeting.

(6) The IPC shall designate an approved International Sporting Event (First Category Event, Sporting Code, General Section, Section 3.5.1.) as a World Cup and where so designated, the relevant provisions of this Sporting Code, Section 5, shall apply

1.1.2 Definitions

(1) PARACHUTE JUMP: A parachute jump is a jump by a person from an aircraft of any kind, heavier or lighter than air, made with the intent of using a parachute for the whole or a part of the descent.

(2) COMPETITION JUMP: a parachute jump performed with the intention of being scored; the score being used to determine the final competition placing. Competition jumps include those where a score is officially discarded as in a throwaway round.

(3) ROUND: a round is the completion, by all competitors, of one jump of the same kind, all having been scored. A round may extend over more than one day.

(4) THROWAWAY ROUND: a round discarded when determining the final placing. It need not be the same round for each competitor or team.

(5) EVENT: an event comprises all the rounds of a competition and solely for the purposes of registering a protest, includes any training rounds referred to in the Competition Rules.

(6) TEAM: a number of parachutists jumping together in an event.

(7) FAI PARACHUTING JUDGE: A judge fulfilling the requirements of this Sporting Code, the Judging Rules and the relevant Competition Rules.

(8) NATIONAL JUDGE: A judge fulfilling the requirements of a National Airsport Control but not yet designated as an FAI Parachuting Judge.

(9) JUNIOR: For the purpose of all disciplines, other than Para-Ski, a junior competitor is a person under the age of 22 or whose 22nd birthday occurs during the calendar year in which the relevant competition takes place. In the case of Para-Ski, the definition of a junior competitor is included in the Competition Rules.

(10) MONDIAL: An International Sporting Event, comprised of WPC's in all IPC competition disciplines (except Canopy Piloting and Para-Ski, which may be included or excluded at the option of the Organiser), taking place concurrently in the same location.

1.2 PERSONAL REQUIREMENTS

(1) Documents Every parachutist, who wishes to make competition and record jumps, which are covered by this Sporting Code, must have a valid FAI Sporting Licence ( refer to Sporting Code, General Section, Chapter 8 ) and an International or National Parachutist Certificate (see Chapter 2 and Sporting Code, General Section, 8.2).

(3) Where it is required by National or other regulations,

(1) a protective helmet must be worn and,

(2) if jumping takes place in the vicinity of water, lifesaving equipment must be worn.

1.3 GENERAL SAFETY CONDITIONS

(1) Parachutists must practise safe parachuting and obey national or local regulations. For general sport parachuting activities, parachute deployment should be initiated by 600 m above ground level or, in special circumstances as specified by an NAC, by an altitude set by that NAC. Failure to practice safe parachuting may lead to a warning or grounding or, at a competition, to the disqualification of a competitor or team in one or more events.

(2) The maximum wind speed at ground level for parachuting is 11 m/sec. This maximum wind speed is set with a ram-air main and a ram-air reserve in mind.

(3) At FAI sanctioned events, the minimum jump altitude above ground level for freefall jumps must be 700 m for an individual jump and 900 m for a team jump.

CHAPTER 3 : WORLD RECORDS - CLASS G (Parachuting)

3.1 GENERAL PROVISIONS

3.1.1. Sub Classes of Records

(1) Competition Records ? Canopy Formation Records

(2) Performance Records ? Largest Formation Records ( FS,CF, AE Freeflying-headdown orientation)

3.1.2 General Conditions

(1) All record attempts must be performed according to the Competition Rules, where appropriate. Team sizes for records must be as stated in the Competition Rules, except for altitude and largest formation records. A change of the conditions in the Competition Rules, for example the working time or size of the Dead Centre Disc, creates a new set of records. The old records are retired.

(2) b) A performance record, other than an Altitude Record, must be certified by three judges, two of whom must be FAI Parachuting Judges. For an Accuracy record, all judges must have a rating valid for Accuracy Landing; for a Canopy Piloting record, all judges must have a rating valid for Canopy Piloting and for a Largest Formation record, all judges must have a rating valid for Formation Skydiving, Artistic Events or Canopy Formation, as appropriate. For an Altitude Record, the certification will be the responsibility of the Official Observers appointed and approved by the organising and/or controlling NAC.

(4) A copy of the videotape or photograph of the Largest Formation record must be included with the record claim documentation.

(5) All team records, other than the Largest Formation records, must be registered by jumpers representing the same NAC. A Largest Formation record may be registered by jumpers who are not all representing the same NAC.

(10) The Judges certifying the record must be approved and registered as Official Observers, as described in General Section 4.2.1, by the controlling NAC (General Section 6.4.2). The NAC organising a First Category Event will agree, as part of the performance contract (4.1.1.2), to approve and register the Panel of Judges as Official Observers for the purpose of competition record certification.

3.2 COMPETITION RECORDS

(1) Competition Records may only be established during the scheduled competition rounds at an International Sporting Event, which has been registered in the FAI Sporting Calendar, or at a National Championships, which is not open to participation by NACs other than the organising NAC. For purposes of this provision, unless a specific invitation is issued by the organising NAC to another NAC, teams or competitors from a country other than the country of the organising NAC that are permitted to participate in a National Championships are considered not to represent participation by an NAC other than the organising NAC.

(2) Training jumps as defined in the Competition Rules are not to be considered as scheduled competition jumps.

3.2.5 Canopy Formation records

(1) 4-Way Rotation The record performance for a 4-way rotation is the number of stacks/planes made by rotation in accordance with the Competition Rules.

(2) Longest Sequence The record performance for the longest sequence is the number of formations completed in accordance with the Competition Rules.

(3) 8-Way Speed Formation The record performance for an 8-way speed formation is the time in which eight persons form a complete connected eight canopy formation in accordance with the Competition Rules.

3.2.8 Categories of Competition Records

The categories of Competition Records shall be:

(3) Canopy Formation and Freeflying General Category - best performance achieved

3.2.9 Joint Record holders in Freefall Style, Formation Skydiving, Canopy Formation, Artistic Events and Canopy Piloting:

(1) If two or more competitors or teams achieve the same record performance during the same round and thereby break an existing record, the new record shall be registered in the names of all the competitors or teams involved.

(2) If a competitor or team achieves a performance during a later round in the same event, which is equal to a new record performance achieved during an earlier round in that event, no recognition will be given to that performance as being a record performance.

3.3 PERFORMANCE RECORDS

3.3.3 Largest Formation records

(1) The record performance for the largest formation is the number of persons in one formation. One written plan describing the formation to be attempted and the personnel involved must be submitted in advance to the judges. The formation must be complete as described with all named personnel in the formation.

(2) The exit procedure for the largest formation record is the same as for the longest sequence record in accordance with the relevant competition rules, except that more than one aircraft may be used.

3.3.5 Categories of Performance Records The categories of Performance Records shall be :

  • General Category - best performance achieved
  • Female Category - best performance achieved by a woman or a women's team or group.

3.3.7 Joint Record Holders in Altitude and Largest Formation

    If two or more individuals or teams achieve an identical record performance on the same calendar day and thereby break an existing record, the new record shall be registered in the name of all the individuals or teams involved.

CHAPTER 4 : ORGANISATION OF COMPETITIONS

4.1 GENERAL PROVISIONS

4.1.2 Schedule of Organisation

(1) World Championships in Para-Ski will be organised in every odd numbered year.

(2) The schedule for other competitions is:

  • 2005: World Cups,
  • World Games 2006:
  • Mondial/WPCs 2007:
  • World Cups 2008:
  • Mondial/WPCs 2009:
  • World Cups, World Games 2010:
  • Mondial/WPCs

    It should be understood that, for an even numbered year, a bid for a Mondial will receive priority over a bid for an individual WPC. This provision does not apply to a WPC that has already received sanction.

(3) Other World Cups and competitions not covered above may be organised at the discretion of the IPC.

4.3 TECHNICAL ARRANGEMENTS, ACCOMMODATION

4.3.1 Judging Equipment and Identification

(3) The video recording, playback and auxiliary equipment used for judging FS, CF, AE and CP shall be of Digital PAL format.

4.3.4 Aircraft and Pilots

(2) The pilots must ensure that the jump runs are made at the correct altitude and with the correct speed and power settings as stated in the Competition Rules. They must transmit these settings to the ground when requested or the settings may be monitored.

(3) If 4.1.1.6 applies and an aircraft that is different from the one stated in the Competition Rules or from that specified in the approved and sanctioned bid document is used, the speed and power settings shall be determined by the relevant Committee or Competition Jury (as appropriate) after consultation with the Chief Pilot and the Meet Director.

4.3.5 Meteorological Service

(4) At every landing area the direction of the wind at ground level must be indicated by a windsock. It must be able to indicate the wind direction when the wind speed is 2 m/sec or more.

4.4 PARTICIPATION

4.4.3 Team Events

    Only National Teams (see General Section 3.2.3.1) may participate in a First Category Event. Any permitted exception to this provision will be stated in the Competition Rules for the relevant discipline.

4.5 COMPETITION MANAGEMENT

4.5.4 Team Managers

(1) Team Managers are responsible for the communication between their competitors, and the Meet Director, the Panel of Judges and the Jury.

(2) They have the right to obtain information from the Chief Judge, the Assistant to the Chief Judge or the Event Judge, concerning decisions on rejumps etc. for their competitors.

(3) They are responsible for the order of jumping of their competitors, and for the arrival on time of their competitors at the aircraft loading point.

(4) They may observe the anemometer at any time, but must not interfere with the work of the official at the anemometer.

(5) They have the right to examine the collated score sheet of their team members.

(6) A nominated team member (for example Team Captain) may act as Team Manager with all rights and obligations whenever the Team Manager is not present.

4.5.5 Team Captain

    Each team must have a Team Captain, who is a competitor and is responsible for the communication between his team and the pilot of the aircraft and, in the absence of the Team Manager, other competition officials.

4.6 JUDGES

4.6.4 Event Judges

(1) Event Judges are selected from the list of FAI Parachuting Judges by the Chief Judge.

4.6.6 Attendance at First Category Events

(1) There must be a sufficient number of FAI Parachuting Judges available for all appropriate tasks provided in the Sporting Code and Competition Rules.

(2) The minimum number of FAI Parachuting Judges, including the Chief Judge, required at a WPC is: Freefall Style & Accuracy Landing: 15 Formation Skydiving: 15 Artistic Events: 15 Canopy Formation: 7 Paraski: 7 Canopy Piloting : 11

    FAI Parachuting Judges, additional to this number, must be agreed to by the Chief Judge and the Organiser. The Organiser must supply sufficient personnel to assist the Chief Judge in filling technical and administrative positions, which do not require FAI Parachuting Judges.

4.7 JURY

4.7.1 Members

(3) Notwithstanding the aforementioned provisions of (2) above, the President of the Jury may act as member of a Video Review Panel ( FS,AE and CF ) where the Panel's decision is not subject to appeal or protest and may represent the IPC at official functions if no other more senior IPC Officer is present.

4.8 SAFETY

Any person, including the judges, may report matters of safety during the running of the competition to the FAI Controller.

CHAPTER 5 : GENERAL COMPETITION RULES

5.1 GENERAL PROVISIONS

5.1.1 Equipment

(1) Each participant is responsible for the good condition of his equipment. A fault in equipment, other than team video equipment, is no grounds for a rejump. This also applies to the activation of a safety device to ensure the opening of the parachute.

(2) Equipment problems occurring in freefall, such as to make it difficult or impossible for the competitor to perform, are not grounds for a rejump.

5.2 EXECUTION OF JUMPS

5.2.1 Other Jumps

    Competitors are not allowed any jumps, other than competition and official training jumps, during a First Category Event, once the competition has started. Exceptions to this rule must be authorised by a common agreement between the Chief Judge, the Meet Director and the Jury.

5.2.3 Order of Events

(1) The Meet Director, in close co-operation with the Chief Judge, must take maximum advantage of favourable meteorological conditions.

5.2.5 Calling the Jumpers

(1) Competitors will be called to the loading area approximately 15 minutes before they must board the aircraft. They will also be given a second call 5 minutes before they must board the aircraft. (2) If they do not arrive in time to board the assigned aircraft, the following action will be taken: (a) First Infringement; The jump will be made at the earliest opportunity as determined by the Meet Director.

(2) Formation Skydiving, Canopy Formation, Artistic Events, Canopy Piloting Distance and Zone Accuracy. A penalty equal to 20% (rounded down) of the actual score achieved for this jump will be deducted to arrive at the score for the jump. (b) Further Infringements The competitor or team will receive the maximum or minimum score (as appropriate) for that jump.

(3) Each competitor is allowed a minimum time of 45 minutes from arriving at the competition site to the first call for the next jump, except for rejumps and the first jump of the day and except for Accuracy Landing, Freefall Style and Para-Ski Accuracy Landing, where the minimum time will be 30 minutes.

(5) The following terms will be used by the Meet Director for advising and controlling the movement of competitors during the competition

STANDBY. Competitors must be present on the competition site and may be called as per 5.2.5 (1) at any time.

RELEASED. Competitors do not have to be on the competition site. This instruction must be accompanied by a time at which STANDBY status will recommence. 5.2.5 (3) will not apply to the STANDBY status in this circumstance.

5.2.6 Cameraman, interference and objects in the air.

(2) If in the opinion of the Chief Judge, the Event Judges and the Video Review Panel, a cameraman other than the team's freefall videographer interferes with the judgeability of a team's performance or through direct body contact adversely affects a team's performance, a rejump may be awarded. In this case the cameraman responsible will not be permitted to participate in further camera jumps during the competition.

(3) A rejump may be offered if the Chief Judge, in agreement with the Meet Director and the FAI Controller, concludes that the performance of a team or competitor has been adversely affected by an object in the air (e.g. aircraft, canopies). The Chief Judge's decision is no ground for a protest.

5.2.7 Ground to Air Communication

(2) Except as provi ded in 5.2.8.

(3), disregard of instructions passed to the team in the aircraft may result in a disqualification for that jump. The Judges' decision is no grounds for a protest.

5.2.8 Aircraft Jump Run

(1) The competitor or team is not obliged to jump if the altitude exceeds +/- 50 metres from that stipulated for the event.

(2) In order to avoid interference between competitors and teams, the Meet Director, in conjunction with the Chief Judge and the Chief Pilot, shall stipulate the minimum interval of time between passes (jump runs) of the aircraft over the exit point and between the exit of different teams or competitors during the same pass (jump run) of the aircraft.

(3) If a competitor or team does not jump on their first assigned jump run, they may make no more than one additional jump run, unless authorised by the pilot to do so or where it is apparent that the competitor or team is exhibiting good safety practice or common sense in making additional passes.

(4) The competitor or team may choose to abort a jump for any pertinent reason and may descend with the aircraft. While the length of time elapsed since take-off of the aircraft is not considered a pertinent reason to abort a jump, if the aircraft spends more than fifteen (15) minutes above 3000 m (10,000 ft) msl or ten (10) minutes above 3650m (12,000 ft) msl and there is no supplementary oxygen provided, that will constitute a pertinent reason. If a jump run is aborted and the Meet Director decides that the reason is pertinent, the jump must then be made at the earliest opportunity.

(5) Failure to follow the provisions of paragraph (3) above or aborting a jump without a pertinent reason (as determined by the Meet Director) will result in the following action: First Infringement: The jump, if not already made, will be made at the earliest opportunity as determined by the Meet Director and the penalties described in 5.2.5.2.1 will be applied. Further Infringements: The competitor or team will receive the maximum or minimum score (as appropriate) for the jump;

5.2.9. Meteorological Conditions

(1) Jumping will continue as long as there is, in the opinion of the Event Judge and the Chief Judge, sufficient visibility for both competitors and Judges.

(2) No further exits will be made following the interruption of an event until the conditions are satisfactory. The performance of jumpers or teams that have already exited the aircraft will be judged.

5.2.10 Scoring

(1) Once any jumper other than a team's videographer has left the aircraft, the jump will be evaluated.

(2) If a competitor or team is disqualified for a jump, the maximum/minimum score (as appropriate) is awarded for that jump. Two disqualifications in one competition of a team or an individual result in immediate disqualification for the whole competition. A penalty score awarded following a disqualification in completed rounds must be included in any total score.

5.2.11 Rejumps

(1) Rejumps will be made as soon as possible after the incident giving rise to the rejump.

(2) If a rejump is granted to a competitor/team who has formally requested it, the rejump must be made. If the rejump is not made, the maximum/minimum score for that jump is given.

(3) If jumps are made in conditions which are evidently within the limits of the Sporting Code and Competition Rules, though some of the technical conditions stated in the rules are not strictly complied with, there are no grounds for a rejump.

5.2.12 Jumps Per Day

There is no limit to the number of jumps per day.

5.4 PENALTIES

Except as specifically provided in 5.2.5 and 5.2.8, a competitor or team may be penalised by the Meet Director, with the consent of the Jury, in accordance with the principles set out in the Sporting Code, General Section, 5.2. (see below). The procedure and penalties are as follows:

(1) The Meet Director will determine or, in the case of safety matters, be advised by the FAI Controller whether the infringement is Technical ( SC GS 5.2.2.1 ), Serious (SC GS 5.2.2.2 ) or Unsporting Behaviour ( SC GS 5.2.2.3 ).

(2) When the severity of the infringement has been established and confirmed by the Jury, penalties will apply as follows:

(a) Technical Infringement (2) Formation Skydiving, Canopy Formation, Artistic Events, Canopy Piloting Distance and Zone Accuracy. For each technical infringement by a competitor or team, a penalty equal to 20% (rounded down) of the highest score of the team, to which the competitor belongs, or of the individual competitor for a competition round up to the time of the infringement will be deducted in determining the aggregate score of the team or the competitor for the event.

(b) Serious Infringement (2) Formation Skydiving, Canopy Formation, Artistic Events, Canopy Piloting Distance and Zone Accuracy For each serious infringement by a competitor or team, a penalty equal to 50% (rounded down) of the highest score of the team, to which the competitor belongs, or of the individual competitor for a competition round up to the time of the infringement will be deducted in determining the aggregate score of the team or the competitor for the event.

(c) Unsporting Behaviour The competitor or team will be disqualified from participation in any competition activity.

5.5 PENALTIES AND DISQUALIFICATIONS

5.5.1 The Director of a Sporting Event may penalise a competitor as described in the rules for the event. These penalties may be in the form of an operational disadvantage, deduction of points, alteration of placing order, disqualification, or any other penalty designated by the Air Sport Commission concerned.

5.5.2 SEVERITY OF PENALTIES. The severity of the penalties which may be imposed may range from a minimum loss of points to disqualification indicated below, as appropriate to the offence.

5.5.2.1 Technical Infringements. Technical infringements of rules or failure to comply with requirements caused by mistake or inadvertence where no advantage has accrued or could have accrued to the competitor concerned should, as a guide, carry penalties leading to a reduction of not less than 2% of the best score or maximum available score for the task.

5.5.2.2 Serious Infringements. Serious infringements, including dangerous or hazardous actions or repetitions of lesser infringements should, as a guide, carry minimum penalties leading to a reduction of not less than 5% of the best score or maximum score for the task.

5.5.2.3 Unsporting Behaviour. Cheating or unsporting behaviour, including deliberate attempts to deceive or mislead officials, wilful interference with other competitors, falsification of documents, use of forbidden equipment or prohibited drugs, violations of airspace, or repeated serious infringements of rules should, as a guide, result in disqualification from the sporting event.

CHAPTER 6 : FAI JUDGES

6.1 Parachuting Judge Ratings:

Parachuting Judge Ratings are issued for these disciplines;

(4) Canopy Formation

6.6 Qualifications to Judge at First Category Events

In order to be able to judge at a First Category Event, a Judge must :

6.6.2 For Freefall Style, Formation Skydiving, Canopy Formation and the Artistic Events

(1) achieve a satisfactory evaluation in the specific category as specified in 6.8 within 24 months prior to the nomination date specified in 4.6.5(1). This evaluation may be made by the NAC following guidelines supplied by the IPC Judges' Committee or may be made at an IPC Judges' Training Course or an IPC Evaluation Seminar.

(2) successfully complete the Judges' Conference for the First Category Event.

OR

(1) have served as a Chief Judge, Event Judge or Chief of Judge Training at a First Category Event, an IPC Judges' Training Course or an IPC Evaluation Seminar for the specific category held in the previous two calendar years.

(2) successfully complete the Judges' Conference for the First Category Event.

OR

(1) Have judged satisfactorily at a First Category event for the specific category in the two calendar years preceding the calendar year in which the event is being held.

(2) successfully complete the Judges' Conference for the First Category Event.

6.8 Criteria for Evaluation of Judges

(2) The evaluation in Freefall Style, Formation Skydiving, Canopy Formation and the Artistic Events will be made using videotapes. The tapes must include the approved assessments and a summary of the approved penalties.

(4) The approved assessment makes allowance for judgement decisions. It may, for example, in the Freefall Style event, be a range of angles, which may include zero, as a penalty. In Formation Skydiving or Canopy Formation it may include the case where correct or incorrect would both be acceptable assessments of a particular formation or intermediate. The approved assessment is not always the collated score of the judges being evaluated.

6.8.1 Minimum Evaluation Standards in Freefall Style, Formation Skydiving, Canopy Formation and the Artistic Events

(1) The evaluation shall be made using a minimum of 30 jumps. (2) At least 85% of the assessments for all disciplines, except Formation Skydiving, must agree with the approved score.

6.9 Duties of Judges

6.9.4 Event Judge

(6) The Event Judge or person nominated by the Chief Judge is responsible for the control of the flight direction and the exit point and for observing the wind conditions in the Freefall Style, Formation Skydiving and Canopy Formation events.


FAI Sporting Code - Canopy Formation Competition Rules

    For the latest FAI Sporting Code Canopy Formation competition rules, click here.

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