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Home Up Aerodynamics CRW Canopies Packing Rigging


    You are better equipped to control a parachute if you have a greater understanding of how it works. This section outlines fundamental aerodynamic principles related to ram-air parachutes. It also details specifics related to CRW.

    The following table outlines the affect of using each combination of control inputs. Note that the table assumes  you are a long way from the stall point unless specified.

Control Input Forward Speed Relative Distance to Base Relative Altitude Descent Rate Arc of Turn Heading
Front Riser - Both Increase Closer Decrease Increase None Straight
Front Riser - Left Increase Further Decrease Increase Tight Left Alters to Left
Front Riser - Right Increase Further Decrease Increase Tight Right Alters to Right
Rear Riser - Both Slight Increase Closer Slight Increase Slight Decrease None Straight
Rear Riser - Left Slight Increase Further Slight Increase Slight Decrease Wide Left Alters to Left
Rear Riser - Right Slight Increase Further Slight Increase Slight Decrease Wide Right Alters to Right
Steering Toggles - Both Decrease Further Increase Decrease None Straight
Steering Toggles - Left Decrease Further Decrease Increase Sharp Left Alters to Left
Steering Toggles - Right Decrease Further Decrease Increase Sharp Right Alters to Right


Following are notes & other ideas relevant to this section that require further development. Please ignore.

A single canopy usually flies more efficiently than a formation. It will have greater forward speed, better glide, and lower descent rate. This has to be allowed for by cameraperson and people setting up to dock on the formation. Lower canopies tend to perform worse than higher canopies due to greater disturbance to their airfoil shape, pressurisation, etc. They become less efficient wings.

A rotations team with a wing loading of 1.65, PD Lightning 143/126, sequential trim, 500 jump canopies, average rotations time of 6 seconds will average a descent rate of 

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Copyright 2005 OzCRW. Last modified: May 16, 2005